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- Downsizing, delayering, and rising credentialism are factors that have careers during the 1980s and 1990s, resulting in spiral and transitory career patterns becoming more common.
- The delayering thrust in organizations is said to occur due to technological change, increased global competition, and retrenchment during recessions.
- A comprehensive process of institutional delayering has to be kick-started.
- Amid downsizing and delayering, most employees face both fewer opportunities for promotion and little hope of escape to some new employer.
- At this level, delayering is accompanied by the need for self-supervision by work groups (sometimes called their empowerment).