- Rarely, fulminant ischaemic colitis occurs with gangrene or perforation and needs urgent surgical exploration.
- The presence of deep infection with abscess, cellulitis, gangrene, or osteomyelitis is an indication for hospitalization and prompt surgical drainage.
- Feces, urine, or blood can easily contaminate the wound and infection can range from a superficial infection to septicemia and gangrene of vulvar tissue.
- Patients with deep abscess, extensive bone or joint involvement, crepitus, substantial necrosis or gangrene, or necrotizing fasciitis may be candidates for surgery.
- Vasopressin should be infused through a central catheter because peripheral extravasation could cause tissue necrosis and gangrene.