- The rupture involved all layers of the aortic wall, but the mediastinal pleura remained intact.
- The mass infiltrated the overlying pleura and adjacent lungs.
- It may cause interstitial lung disease by diffusely involving the pleura, interlobular septa, and pulmonary bronchovascular bundles.
- Metastases were present in the vertebral bodies, spleen, peritoneum, pleura, adrenal glands, visceral and parietal pericardium, and multiple lymph nodes.
- Encysted effusion may be confused with a mass lesion of the pleura, mediastinum, chest wall and lungs.
- The mediastinal pleura is then incised over the length of the esophagus, avoiding injury to any neural or major vascular structures.
- There were several small distant metastases in the upper lobe of the same lung and in the opposite pleura or subpleural lung parenchyma.
- Manifestations of disease of the lung and of the pleura have become less evident and less characteristic on plain films as exposures have decreased.
- Explanations for the cytokeratin immunoreactivity include locally entrapped mediastinal pleura or pulmonary epithelium.
- One patient demonstrated multiple recurrences on the chest wall, with eventual direct extension to the pericardium, pleura, and lung.
- The tumor frequently extended to the adjacent lung parenchyma, bronchi, visceral pleura, and mediastinal soft tissues.