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Ions are arguably the leading candidate for use as qubits in a quantum computer.
Of course, I don't believe in quantum error correction or rather I don't believe we will use the standard approach to quantum error correcting to obtain a fault-tolerant quantum computer.
However, it will still take a lot of work to build a useful quantum computer.
When a quantum computer tries to copy a qubit, it forces the qubit to become either one or zero and destroys the information.
However, Deutsch has argued that it may be that all finite systems in Nature can be simulated by a quantum computer.
This allows the quantum computer to efficiently carry out a large number of calculations simultaneously.
But to perform the logic operations vital to a quantum computer, two qubits have to become entangled.
An array of only 30 phosphorus atoms could act as the heart of a quantum computer more powerful than today's supercomputers.
In addition to allowing fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum optics in a completely new format, this new system has many desirable features for a quantum computer.
Superpositioning allows the quantum computer to simultaneously store multiple bit patterns, or states, depending on the number of particles in the system.
Moreover, Meyer's games do not require the bits to be entangled, so they might even help answer one of the fundamental questions in quantum computing: do the qubits in a quantum computer have to be entangled for it to work at all?
Now, if you get as far as getting a quantum computer up and running, if this actually leads to a quantum computer, what sort of things would a quantum computer be able to do?
The strange properties of the quantum world should allow a quantum computer to outperform any existing computer.
Physicists believe that the quantum states of the electrons can be used as quantum bits - or qubits - for encoding data in a superfast quantum computer.
The high efficiency of a quantum computer facilitates computing far beyond the capacity of present-day equipment.
‘It's one more step towards the holy grail of finding a better quantum bit, which hopefully will lead to a quantum computer,’ he said.
Scientists have discovered how the performance of a quantum computer can be affected by its surrounding environment.
Although possibly still decades from fruition, a quantum computer would work much faster than today's computers.
By combining the register and gate there would then be all the basic components available for developing a quantum computer with neutral atoms.
A quantum computer is an extremely small photon driven device which can perform some kind of useful logical work, particularly in the area of encryption.