- Emasculated plants produced 1.3 times the number of seeds produced by plants experiencing natural self-pollination.
- Treatment B was conducted to examine autonomous self-pollination by enclosing intact flowers, before anthesis, in small plastic bags.
- As for calculation of the selfing rate, self-pollination was with pollen from other flowers of the same plant.
- Geitonogamy can be due to self-pollination between flowers on the same branch, different flowering branches of the same plant, or different ramets of the same clonal genet.
- This result is contrary to our hypothesis that the pollination-dependent detrimental fitness effects of clipping were caused by increased self-pollination in damaged plants.