In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1.1(indicating destination)awe're going to Paris/France/a disco — vamos a París/Francia/una discoteca
- I'll drive you to the station — te llevo a la estación
- she's coming to us over Christmas — vendrá a pasar Navidad con nosotros
- which doctor do you go to? — ¿a qué médico vas?
- do you go to church? — ¿vas a la iglesia?
- we went to John's — fuimos a casa de John
- it's time to go to bed — es hora de ir a la cama
- I came to a clearing in the wood — llegué a un claro en el bosque
- how far is it to the next village? — ¿qué distancia hay de aquí al próximo pueblo?
- you can wear it to a party/the wedding — puedes ponértelo para una fiesta/la boda
- Emlyn loudly exited the hotel and went to the station for the Bristol train.
- Last Tuesday I went to a council meeting.
- He actually dropped to the ground just as a giant pickup rolled over him.
- They commissioned GAD Architecture, a firm founded in Turkey that has since moved to New York.
- Yosef, a successful lawyer, commuted hours each day to and from work.
- Her mum had to take her to hospital every week.
1.2(indicating direction)haciamove a little to the right — córrete un poco hacia la derecha
- he turned to me — se volvió hacia mí
- I was knocked to the ground — me tiraron al suelo
- it's pointing to the east — señala al Este
1.3(indicating position)ato the left/right of sth — a la izquierda/derecha de algo
- a mile to the south of Milton — una milla al sur de Milton
- The landlocked country is dominated by the rugged Hindu Kush mountains that sweep from the west to the east.
- It was 850 miles to Singapore Harbor.
- The family room to the right of the entrance hall has an unusual colour scheme.
2(against, onto)she clasped him to her — lo estrechó contra ella
- he stood with his nose to the window — estaba parado con la nariz contra la ventana
- they stuck the poster to the wall — pegaron el cartel en la pared
- This dead-end dirt road follows a peaceful stretch of the Housatonic River and connects to the Appalachian Trail.
- On the other corner, a dozen or so balloons are tied to a pole.
- It is in the phone company's interest to get more homes linked to the Internet at very high rates of speed.
- I have also attached the bulletin to this email so you could get a flavor of what we are doing.
3.1(as far as)hastashe can count (up) to 100 now — ya sabe contar hasta 100
- to a certain extent — hasta cierto punto
- the snow was up to our waists — la nieve nos llegaba hasta / a la cintura
- she works herself to exhaustion — se mata trabajando
- the results are accurate to (within) half an inch — los resultados tienen un margen de error de menos de media pulgada
- a year ago to the day — hace exactamente un año
- Shackleton's southern party passed the previous ‘furthest south’ record set by Scott, but by January 2 Shackleton was near to breaking point.
- Back at the king's court, many warily watched the cardinal's rapid rise to power.
- The children cry themselves to sleep from hunger.
- I can honestly say that officers and staff had a mixture of feelings ranging from anger to disgust.
- Can we ever know if an image moved large numbers of people to action, or changed the ways they think about things?
3.2(until)hastawe have to next Friday to finish the work — tenemos hasta el próximo viernes para terminar el trabajo
- I can't stay to the end — no puedo quedarme hasta el final
- Prospectors arrived by land or sea and usually operated in groups of six to forty, working claims jointly.
- The two books covers the dance band era from the 1930s to the 1960s.
- The working week is Monday to Friday.
- Another eight to ten million square feet of exhibition space is scheduled to come on line within five years.
3.3(indicating range)there will be 30 to 35 guests — habrá entre 30 y 35 invitados
- a small-to-medium hotel — un hotel entre pequeño y mediano
4.1(showing indirect object)who did you lend/send/give it to? — ¿a quién se lo prestaste/mandaste/diste?
- he dedicated his poems to his wife — le dedicó los poemas a su mujer
- give it to me — dámelo
- what did you say to him/them? — ¿qué le/les dijiste?
- I'll hand you over to Jane — te pongo con Jane
- we give help to the needy — ayudamos a los necesitados
- best wishes to you both — los mejores deseos para ambos
- I was singing/talking to myself — estaba cantando/hablando solo
- to me, he will always be a hero — para mí, siempre será un héroe
- it looked to me as though he was lying — me pareció que estaba mintiendo
- what is it to you? — ¿y a ti qué te importa?
- he was very kind/rude to me — fue muy amable/grosero conmigo
- I am thankful to Anna and her program for my rehabilitation.
- When I got out of prison a couple of years ago he actually was very kind to me.
- In our marriage the most important factor is commitment and being considerate to each other.
- I wish you hadn't drawn attention to it.
4.2(in toasts, dedications)here's to Toby — brindemos por Toby
- here's to a Happy New Year — ¡Feliz Año Nuevo!
- let's drink to her health — bebamos a su salud
- Ode to a Stag — Oda a un ciervo
- to Paul with love from Jane — para Paul, con cariño de Jane
5.1(indicating proportion, relation)how many ounces are there to the pound? — ¿cuántas onzas hay en una libra?
- a rate of 95 pesetas to the US dollar — una tasa de cambio de 95 pesetas por dólar
- three parts oil to one part vinegar — tres partes de aceite por cada parte de vinagre
- 30 miles to the gallon — 30 millas por galón
- this map is one inch to one mile — la escala de este mapa es de una pulgada por milla
- Barcelona won by two goals to one — Barcelona ganó por dos (goles) a uno
- there's a 10 to 1 chance of … — hay una probabilidad de uno en 10 de …
- 10 to the 5th or to the power (of) 5 — 10 a la quinta potencia
- A is to B as X is to Y — A es a B como X es a Y
- With the dollar at $1.24 to the pound, property in Florida was quite an attractive investment.
- The peso breached 50 to the dollar, plunging the country further into crisis.
- If you fly into wind you will get much less mileage to the litre.
- The petrol version will do 16.2 miles to the gallon around town.
5.2(in comparison)inferior/superior/equal to — inferior/superior/igual a
- that's nothing to what followed — eso no es nada comparado / en comparación con lo que vino después
- prices are very high to what they were ten years ago — los precios son muy altos comparados / en comparación con lo que eran hace diez años
- It is simply that I think women are superior to men.
- Tom told him a story about a parolee who stole a car to get back into jail because he preferred it to home.
- I prefer men to women.
- This kid is an angel compared to me though and has never been any trouble.
6.1(concerning)what do you say to that? — ¿qué te parece (eso)?
- that's all there is to it — eso es todo
- there's nothing to it — es muy simple / sencillo
6.2British (in bills)porto supplying and fitting radiator, £50 — por suministrar e instalar un radiador, £50
7.1(in accordance with)to the best of my knowledge — a mi entender
- these decorations are not to my taste — estos adornos no son de mi gusto
- Much to his surprise, this small film has turned out to have wide appeal.
- To our dismay, unknown to us there was a motel only three kilometres down the road.
- I got 98% in the test but to my annoyance, Janet got 100%.
- She actually did dance with Astaire - but to her great regret, only once, in Easter Parade.
7.2(producing)to my horror/delight … — para mi horror/alegría …
- to everyone's amazement, he did recover — para asombro de todos, se recuperó
7.3(indicating purpose)to this end — con este fin
8(indicating belonging)dethe key to the front door — la llave de la puerta principal
- secretary to the president — secretario del presidente
- husband to Doreen and father to Charles and Nicola — esposo de Doreen y padre de Charles y Nicola
- the solution to the problem — la solución al / del problema
- it has a nice ring/sound to it — suena bien
- There's a buffet at lunchtime, with plenty of good salads and dips, or the chef will cook a stir-fry to order.
- Alberto is single, while Ernesto is committed to his pretty, aristocratic girlfriend.
- She was also special assistant to the cultural affairs commissioner in 1987.
- Letting anyone into a country without proper identification and background checks is an invitation to chaos.
- She's now very happily engaged to a famous actor.
- Karen, on the other hand, is a good friend to Daniel, whose young wife has just passed away.
- You can even have your ideal leather coat made to measure by a leather specialist.
- He's married to a sociologist who teaches family studies at the University of Connecticut.
9Britanico(telling time)ten to three — diez para las tres Río de la Plata América Latina
- the trains run at twenty to the hour — los trenes salen a las menos veinte cada hora
- I was awake at ten to six, at the gym by 6:30.
- Apologies followed, and at five to three the belated ceremony commenced to the relief of all concerned.
- It's twenty to one in the morning, and I'm beat.
10(accompanied by)we danced to the music — bailamos al compás de la música
- they sang it to the tune of 'Clementine' — lo cantaron con la melodía de 'Clementine'
- to the sound of tumultuous applause — en medio de una gran ovación
marcador de infinitivo
1.1to sing/fear/leave — cantar/temer/partir
- I want to dance — quiero bailar
- I want them to dance — quiero que bailen
- he wants to be pampered — quiere que lo mimen
- there's nothing to be gained by lying — nada se gana mintiendo
- to have won is the main thing — haber ganado es lo principal
- Pope to visit Africa — el Papa visitará África
- There is also information on where to find help with insulation and central heating.
- I want to show everybody I am stronger than he is.
- She's asked him to seek counseling.
- You talk about your sister a lot, I'd like to meet her.
1.2(in order to)paraI have to work to eat — tengo que trabajar para comer
- I do it to save money — lo hago para ahorrar dinero
- Next time I am going to box differently with regard to speed and power.
- I went to get help and by the time I got back he had stopped breathing.
- His aim was to be a great artist, and in reality he was.
- My friend and I were determined to do better.
- Thieves attempted to gain entry into the cafe on Saturday morning.
1.3(indicating result)he awoke to find her gone — cuando despertó, ella ya se había ido
- I opened the door to find him standing outside — abrí la puerta y me lo encontré ahí afuera
- I walked 5 miles only to be told they weren't home — caminé 5 millas para que me dijeran que no estaban en casa
- I have always dreamt about earning a living playing polo, and I think I am managing to achieve it.
- It's too cold to get out of bed.
- Parks was ignored and left to fend for herself in poverty for many years.
- I decided to stay away from the crowd but close enough to hear the speakers.
1.4(without vb)would you like to see it? — I'd love to! — ¿te gustaría verlo? — ¡me encantaría!
- I'm not going to — no voy a hacerlo
- he doesn't want to — no quiere
- if you don't want to go, you don't have to — si no quieres ir, no tienes por qué hacerlo
- It is your choice if you smoke or not but I think everyone would benefit if we made an effort not to.
- As much as I didn't want to go, I had to.
- I don't want this moment to end, but it's got to.
2it's easy/difficult to do — es fácil/difícil de hacer
- you're too young to drink wine — eres demasiado joven para beber vino
- it would be silly not to take the opportunity — sería una tontería no aprovechar la oportunidad
- she was the first to arrive/leave — fue la primera en llegar/irse
- I'm not the sort to be offended easily — no soy de los que se ofenden fácilmente
- it's nothing to worry about — no hay por qué preocuparse
- she has a lot to do — tiene mucho que hacer
- I've a family to support — tengo una familia que mantener
- We don't have any water to drink.
- They see no sun in their limited lives, with no hay to lie on, no mud to roll in.
- He's going to a cabaret, and he has absolutely nothing to wear.
1(shut)I pulled the door to — cerré la puerta
- the shutters weren't properly to — los postigos no estaban bien cerrados
- I went in and pulled the door to.
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