In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1.1(strong, hard-wearing)(fabric/rubber/clothing) resistente(clothing/fabric/rubber) fuerte
- This bouncy rubber was surprisingly tough stuff.
- They are tough enough to withstand being walked on occasionally and will reward the passer-by with perfume released from the crushed foliage.
- But cement is exceptionally tough and not very porous and its use at Fountains has essentially reversed this process.
- Polycarbonate is a tough material but not hard.
- The handle is made of G-l0, a tough material favored by tactical knife makers.
- Bags are sent wrapped in tissue, wrapped in recycled plastic, then sealed into a recyclable tough paper mailer bag.
- Stainless steel is a tough metal and does not rust, but it's harder to sharpen.
- Wax is a tough moisture barrier, doesn't rot wood or synthetic stocks, and doesn't attract dirt.
- All of the following clothes are made up of a tough material which should be strong against almost all elements of magic.
- This is moisture resistant and forms a tough coating which can be washed with soap and water.
- He knows just how to make tight leggings, rough, tough leathers and plush cashmere absolutely dazzling.
- Occasionally someone would get hit in the foot or leg, but school shoe leather was tough and the last thing you'd do was report any mishaps.
- The Aldgate train was the standard London model, built of a tough steel frame upon which aluminium bodywork is bolted firmly down.
- I've sliced them in half, cut away the tough fibres, drizzled them with olive oil, and grilled them.
- If you have ever polished some hard, tough material like metal or marble you know how much energy it takes.
- Wood is a tough material that lasts a long time and is easy to repair.
- The balls used in boccia are mainly made of tough leather and filled with a grain-like substance.
- The ground began shacking with such great force, not even the lifeless roots obscured in the grey soil were tough enough to hold up their dying masters.
- African rice is tough enough to fight drought, but many west African farmers abandoned the variety in favour of Asian strains that produce more grains per plant.
- In early 1943 two American professors discovered that a very tough material could be produced by adding a small amount of wood pulp to water before freezing.
- The lamb cutlet was also tough: though served quite rare, it was uncuttable, unchewable and tasteless.
- Hominids had teeth that resembled those of pigs and bears, which can chew tough, fiber-rich food.
- Recipes from regions where tough meat is the norm often call for a marinade made with fruit or juice.
- I've been grazing among the blogs and chewing that question like a tough mouthful of cud.
- One or two are so contorted that poor old Lawson, who is a consummate professional, looks like he has been compelled to chew on a tough piece of sirloin and then spit it out in public.
- Duck legs have fairly tough meat - the legs are worked hard during their lifespan, making the flesh taut and muscly.
- The meat is still tough and not as palatable as typical American cuisine, but it's also not that bad.
- Move those cows too fast and you end up with very fit, very lean, very tough sirloin.
- She says it was slippery and she could not cut it with a knife. She took it in her hand and placed it in her mouth, but the ‘meat’ was so tough she could not bite through it.
- The pigs' apprehension about being eaten results in tough meat, which is why pork no longer tastes good.
- The meat was a little tough, but the flavour, infused with lemon, was delicious, a light meat somewhere between lamb and beef.
- The fruit is tough and prickly on the outside, tender and sweet on the inside.
- I have a headache, and all I've had to chew on are these infernal, tough pieces of salt meat.
- She chewed on the cooked piece of tough meat that had been in the saddlebag, not pausing to wonder how it had gotten there.
- The man brought dry cheese, more water, and a hunk of tough meat that tasted more than a little rancid.
- I got used to drinking powdered milk, living off rice and kidney beans, occasionally a bit of tough meat in a stew as a treat.
- Most of them are sipping coffee, or reading newspapers, or chewing morosely on tough bread.
- I tried a small pastie that looked safe, but the meat inside was so tough I had to swallow it nearly whole after chewing for a couple of minutes.
- It's best to keep the stems out of most dishes, since all but the newest growth is too tough to chew.
- Rabbits, horses, and elephants chew tough grasses, leaves, and plants.
2.1(physically, emotionally resilient)fuerte
- He was strong and brave, a happy-go-lucky person but also tough and able to live on his own.
- Cosmopolitans, not tough pioneers, they lacked the grit required to face the hardships of frontier life.
- Many of them have led hard lives already, and they are tough, angry and unforgiving.
- She needed to be tough, and sympathy would only throw her off guard.
- A tough demeanor was required, but it wasn't innate as his reputation might lead us to think.
- A track for tough cars and tough drivers, it tests every component and every sinew to the limit and few pass with flying colours.
- In any case, with Beeching reluctant to play the game and with Marples determined to be tough, it was difficult to predict which lines would be spared in advance.
- It was strange because in contrast my Nan was as tough as old boots; she just had a tendency to say insane things.
- Finally there is the underlying truth that Carol is as tough as old boots, and frankly, as sexy as a Sherman tank.
- Clarence Moore fills various roles, from perimeter shooter to tough defender to solid rebounder.
- Brees is smart, tough and had the confidence of his teammates after leading them to 20 wins over the last two years.
- Lincou is a muscular, tough player who likes to occupy the center of the court, causing his opponents to run around him.
- She may be tough and indifferent on the outside but I could see that deep inside she was experiencing tremendous pain and sorrow.
- ‘Reg is a real fighter by nature, he is as tough as old boots and will not give in,’ said Linn.
- Despite losing his round to an older competitor the tough tot's family said he would not be deterred.
- To be fair to him, he's as tough as old boots and he just galloped to the line.
- To have to go through that family scandal and still be a sweet, genuine person - how tough she was to endure that.
- Football's about tough uncompromising individuals, who bleed real blood, take no prisoners and fight to the very end, yeah?
- Another point I make in About Face was that I had learned about war from tough old sergeants and captains who had fought the big war.
- But Duncan came from the generation before the welfare state, when to survive at all you had to be as tough as old boots - and he was.
- Meanwhile, co-star Jolie is perfectly suited as the tough, intelligent young lady who can pierce anybody with a silent stare.
- It then turned out that my grandad is as tough as old boots, and probably just wanted to take attention away from me getting a job.
- I am, in fact, either as tough as old boots, or as soft as a particularly fluffy bunny, depending on who you ask, and when.
- And, you know, he was a tough priest who was sympathetic, but you know, I think he was used to tragedy.
- The girls were very tough and demonstrated their excellent skills and the only fair decision after three great rounds was a draw.
- Brunson is a tough defender and solid passer, attributes coach Bill Cartwright seeks.
- Maybe with the emergence of young, tough defenders such as Chris Gbandi that will change.
- Braham is a smart, tough leader, but he lacks the athleticism to be a full-time starter.
- Happily, Russian skaters tend to be tough as old boots.
- She is young and tough, the servants respect her, and everything is in impeccable order.
- Though you look delicate you are tough as nails and prone to intricacies…
- Driver 2 is equally tough, but at least this time the missions aren't impossibly hard from the very outset.
- However, the tough Belgian was able to recover enough to catch the pack and hand with the grupetto on the final climb.
- I saw the older men trying to demonstrate they were still tough and able.
- Unwilling Accomplice is the story of two violent criminals on the run and the tough young woman who outwits them.
- He then fought and won a hard match with the tough Mr. D. to take back his crown.
- He is smart, tough and instinctual, but a lack of speed hurts him in coverage.
- They are a tough, resilient and uncomplaining people (as I saw first hand in the casualty areas in 1974).
- The women lost their first two conference matches to tough opponents.
- He's a tough old bastard, and he's pulled through things like this before.
2.2(aggressive, violent)bravucónhe's just trying to be a tough guy — se está haciendo el gallito / el machito coloquial
- Galvin's characters jump off the page at you whether he is describing a tough young cop like Fox or ‘Beano’ his snout.
- But let us go back to the uneven struggle between a tough, young yob and a frail pensioner.
- That sure as heck wasn't what a tough guy like Solid Snake would do.
- Even the ones who looked like tomorrow's tough teenagers were evincing childlike delight.
- Sarah was a tough girl, muscular even, very strong and with a real hot temperament.
- Mr. R. was a big, burly tough guy who melted when he had to give his girls away.
- Sadly, teams require tough guys or enforcers to keep the opposition honest.
- Here she's at her best, in a part that requires her to be tough and crude, a relentless force of pure ego.
- About a moment after he left two tough and very heartless-looking guards walked in.
- Carl gathered that the man was trying to compensate for the obvious lack of prestige with a tough guy attitude.
- Hollywood sells tough men, beautiful women, simple storylines and violence.
- He was a tall, muscular man, obviously tough and afraid of nothing.
- Given those credentials, the character cries out for an old-school tough guy approach.
- He looks like a tough young man to me… Just wondering here, William, but who exactly are these kids?
- While all agree he is tough and prone to losing his temper, there is almost universal respect for his abilities as a soldier.
- In my mind, I saw the tough young man I had met in the cathedral that night.
- A group of teenagers thinking they were tough, accosted us in an alley.
- Outside the town centre pubs, tough young men and women in vests, jeans and tattoos were giving each other the thumbs up and cackling with glee.
- Gilbart was still very strong and tough - the bulging muscles and calloused hands proved this.
- New Russian is a euphemism for black-market pimp, smuggler, gangster, any tough young man with capitalist cash, and there are lots of them.
3.1(strict, uncompromising)(boss/teacher) severo(teacher/boss) exigente(teacher/boss) estricto(legislation/terms/line) duro(discipline/policy) duro(discipline/policy) de mano dura(negotiator) implacableser injusto para con algnto be tough on sb — ser duro / severo con algn
- I think she's too tough on her son — creo que es demasiado dura / severa con su hijo
- I'm going to have to get tough with you — voy a tener que ser más dura contigo
- there was some tough talking by both sides — ambas partes se expresaron sin rodeos
- Both goals were stamped with class but it was tough on City, who hardly warranted being behind by one, never mind two.
- I think it's going to be tough on the mother when that trial comes.
- It was tough on the Frenchman, who made no contact with Douglas.
- We'll be tough on fraud, and there is fraud, and we have to go after it.
- There's a couple of times where she's gone to school and she's just in floods of tears and yeah it's really tough on them.
- So some organisations, very good retail organisations in terms of discerned as being successful, are quite tough on those sorts of issues.
- I called her every night from New York and I'm sure it was extremely tough on her to hear me, not normally an emotional person, sobbing every night.
- It was tough on the Carlow girls who had put up a sterling second half fight back having trailed by six points at half time.
- North Yorkshire Police said that while they were not holding a specific campaign this summer, they would still be tough on drink-drivers.
- It is tough on her, because everyone puts so much emphasis on the past and right now is the future.
- Maintain a tough zero-tolerance approach against graffiti in most locations.
- The nation's 40th chief executive knew it would be tough on the light of his life.
- He said it was tough on students for whom it was the last day of their exams.
- He is every bit as tough on his Conservative and Liberal Democrat interviewees as he is on New Labour and its supporters.
- It was tough on Barca but they showed they are learning quickly and can take great heart from their display.
- As we keep learning the hard way, efficient markets require tough regulators.
- Many thought so and believed that New Zealand, a tough and uncompromising side would provide a much sterner examination.
- But Blunkett's tough approach to social reform could only be argued by a minister free of personal distractions.
- This appraisal is as tough, uncompromising and brutally simplistic as many of Brogden's law-and-order policies.
- As it developed, the Court took a tough approach to applying the law, and did not permit many restrictive agreements.
- The noises coming from the ombudsman's office suggest the guidance, which is currently being written, will be fairly tough on companies.
- One of the worst, as any politician will attest, is that it is very tough on families.
- It is tough on Maloney that the arduous assignment of a UEFA Cup tie at home to VfB Stuttgart is being billed as if it were the equivalent of finishing school for the player.
- ‘It's been pretty tough on her as she's had a lot of catching up to do but we're trying to get her on the track as quick as we can,’ he said.
- It was in that role that Howard chiselled out a reputation for being tough and uncompromising.
- The ombudsman does take a tough investigative approach to claims that people did not understand what they were buying.
- It turns out it's a lot of work and very tough on the staff.
- Sereana Naikelekele says the situation is tough on all five kids.
- They're very tough on executive privilege in general, and on the flow of information more broadly than that.
- He attempted to appease the nasty wing of his own party by being tough on immigrants, while pretending that his proposals were liberal and sensible.
- The reason for the low turnout could be that the authorities' tough approach scared people away.
- Colchester police have launched a new tough approach on people begging in the town, which a spokesman said should solve the problem faced by shopkeepers.
- The move is designed to streamline the prosecution of people who make false claims, and forms part of the companies' new, tough approach.
- It was tough on Pres Milltown who gave it everything but they just gave St Pats too big a lead and had little luck with marginal decisions.
- He said it is very tough on Irish students who need up to 570 points to get medicine and may miss out by just 15 or 20 points.
- If criminal activity is taking place we will take a tough approach to drive it from our streets.
- And they're geniuses, but it's just eaten them up and spit them out, and it's been tough on them.
- It's going to be tough on staff because they wouldn't be home until 3am after an evening meeting.
- It was tough on Belmullet who for most of the game had looked to be the better side but McDonagh's late goal knocked the wind out of their sails.
- The Government was positioning itself nicely to run a campaign based on its tough approach to dealing with asylum seekers.
3.2(difficult)(question/decision/exam) difícil(question/exam/decision) peliagudothe job was tough going to begin with — al principio, el trabajo se me hizo muy cuesta arriba
- it's tough leaving your family at that age — es duro tener que dejar a la familia a esa edad
- they had a tough time — las pasaron muy mal
- It will be a tough match and to be honest I think Ireland will struggle to win the Championship as Wales have already done the business against both the English and the French.
- They anticipated a tough match and were not disappointed, and despite what the scoreboard might suggest, this was far from a one sided game.
- I suppose it will follow that pattern, but it will require some very tough work.
- It was a tough match and we're just glad to have come out of it okay.
- Sure, comedy is tough: it requires actual laughter to prove its value and worth.
- He has had a year off the sport with injury and yet, in a tough, exhausting match, he was everywhere.
- ‘They are a good side and it will be a tough match,’ he had offered dutifully beforehand, and he wasn't wrong.
- It was another historic match, a tough fight between bat and ball, but at the end the target of 313 proved to be a bit too much for the West Indies.
- It was a fair, tough match and the referee had little or nothing to do.
- Getting published and earning a bit of critical acclaim to spur on further creative efforts is tough for those starting out.
- But it was big job, a very tough assignment that required major cultural changes.
- I think acting is tough, as it requires great mental discipline.
- With a tough run of matches in front of them it was important the Rams remained unbeaten in order to maintain their league position as the critical part of the season comes to fruition.
- These questions require us to make tough decisions about how we distribute our finite resources.
- This is a tough process and will require NASA to make some hard decisions between now and September.
- It was a tough match, which provided excitement up to the very end with the result being a deserved draw for both sides.
- This will require tough decisions that cannot be ducked.
- Also: finishing a tough job requires that you draw your hand theatrically across your brow.
- Getting control of your finances requires tough choices
- This was a very tough, exciting match and at half time we were down 2 tries.
3.3tough (luck)! — ¡mala suerte!
1(aggressively)stop acting tough — no te hagas el gallito / el machito coloquial
1matón masculino coloquial
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