In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1Anatomyfeminine espaldamasculine lomohe was lying on his back — estaba tumbado boca arriba
- I fell on my back — me caí de espaldas
- he was flat on his back for a month — estuvo un mes en cama sin moverse
- he was standing with his back to the door — estaba (de pie) de espaldas a la puerta
- you break your back working and … — te deslomas / te partes el lomo trabajando y …
- while my back was turned he went and told the boss — fue y se lo contó al jefe a mis espaldas
- I was glad to see the back of him — me alegré de que se fuera
- behind sb's back
- they laugh at him behind his back — se ríen de él a sus espaldas
- they went behind my back and wrote to him — le escribieron sin consultarme / sin mi autorización
- on the back of sb/sth — a costa de algn/algo
- to be on sb's back — estarle encima a algn
- I had the boss on my back — tenía al jefe encima
- just get off my back! — déjame en paz
- to break the back of a job — hacer la parte más difícil de un trabajo
- to get / put sb's back up — irritar a algn
- to put one's back into sth — poner empeño en algo
- to turn one's back on sb — volverle la espalda a algn
- she turned her back on her family — le volvió la espalda a su familia
2.1masculine respaldofeminine espaldafeminine tapa
- Actors love sitting on tables for the same reason they love gripping the backs of chairs - it makes them look more relaxed on stage.
- Ample walnut chairs had high backs and were painted, finished a mecca, or left in the natural walnut color.
- With low backs and plunging necklines, this fashion has become more and more popular among teenagers and adults alike and local swimwear stores say sales are booming.
- Still, even for the rich, chair backs were straight and clothes were tight because politeness mattered more than comfort.
- The offensive slogan is written is written in letters six inches high on the back of the garment.
- The walls were plastered in expensive paintings and the couches were long and fancy with wooden arm rests and intricately carved backs.
- Take the dresses as examples: From the front they were basic, flowing dresses, but the backs were cut low in an elegant way.
- In the second, he wore a fluorescent yellow jacket with security written across the back.
- You may put your arms out in front of you or hold the back of a sturdy chair for balance.
- Place a dining chair with its back against the wall to give you a firm base.
- Learn to tie fanciful bows or just tie a simple bow to the backs of dining chairs, around stemware or around your silverware.
- The large, single room is cleverly broken up into small sections by folding screens and even the chairs have carved backs featuring Chinese scenes.
- He looked around the small room and found his jacket and shirt draped over the back of a chair.
- The restaurant has heavy starched white linen tablecloths and huge antique Siamese chairs with mother-of-pearl inlaid backs.
- He had a ring in left eyebrow, and wore jeans and a grey anorak with writing on the back.
- Their legs were tucked up in front of them, and their arms rested over the back of the chair.
- She rested her upper arms along the backs of the chair, resting her head against one hand.
- Bowlers involved will wear sponsor logos on their shirt backs and right sleeves.
- Handbags, mobile phones on tables, coats on backs of chairs are all easy pickings for light-fingered thieves.
- For evening, the collection is a procession of gathers, plunging necklines and backs, irregular lines.
- The jacket is on the back of the chair and the security pass lies on the desk next to piles of paperwork.
- When the sun becomes strong in summer, people can simply swivel so that they are shaded from it by the chair backs.
- His ancestors were cobblers but diversified into making vividly embroidered leather bags, wallets and chair backs.
- Friends and family bound into the house, tracking in mud or snow, stashing coats in already overstuffed closets or heaping them over the backs of chairs.
- His eyes widen in fear and surprise, and then he strides round the empty house with it tucked into the back of his jeans.
- He has poured himself a glass of champagne and put his arm around her, resting his hand on the back of her wooden chair.
- Sleek low backs look good, but they can make you feel exposed and uncomfortable.
- Cuyler's furniture ranges from chairs with flowers for backs to stools with the child's name painted on them.
- Still nobody had offered to take our coats, so we draped them over the back of the chairs.
2.2(reverse side)masculine dorsomasculine revésfeminine parte posteriorfeminine parte de atrásmasculine dorsothe back of the neck — la nuca
- read the instructions on the back — lea las instrucciones al dorso
- on the back of an envelope — en forma improvisada
- He moved out and bought a rundown place in the town centre round the back of the station.
- A more streamlined car would have six small wheels, two at the front and four powered at the back.
- It sent a sympathetic, shivery rush from my spine to the backs of my knees.
- There are residential facilities, but most pitch a tent on land at the back of the centre.
- The supermodel and her companion then stood up and moved to the back of the bar.
- He's certainly made a big move from the back of the pack, and is looking more like a winner.
- Young children have also been putting their lives at risk by hanging on the back of fire engines while they are on the move.
- Then he stands up and moves to the back of the room, by the door they come in and out of.
- Each star was dedicated to someone and messages of remembrance were written on the back.
- I felt a sharp pain in the back of my leg which got much worse when I fell down.
- He quickly moved to the back of the tour bus where we were sitting and spoke softly.
- I move to the back of the room, sitting against the wall and staring at the cute cow.
- With the radiator out of the way now it was time to move on to the back of the truck and the motherboard mounting.
- She swiftly moved to the back of the car, making sure that there was no one behind to see them.
- He thinks his day rucksack saved his life, protecting his spine and the back of his neck during the fall.
- The main bedroom is at the back of the house and has two sash windows and an 18th century pine fireplace.
- Scrub all surfaces, including the backs of your hands, wrists, between your fingers and under your fingernails.
- Some of the messages written on the back of the tulip postcards are so sweet and encouraging.
- I have a series of photos of the family that I like very much because someone wrote on the backs of them describing the subject and where the photo was taken.
- I wanted to surprise my friend Chris with a postcard and I knew what I wanted to write on the back.
- If it needs changing after qualifying starts, the driver will be moved to the back of the grid.
- Residents are kept up till late at night and people like my neighbour have to move to the back of their houses to get sleep.
- Information about threatened animals turns up on toy packaging or the backs of cereal boxes, even in children's songs.
- The bus is practically empty, so they move to the back as the bus lurches forwards.
- How about reaching back over your shoulder and touching the back of your neck?
- First, all three of these are great exercises for firming up the backs of your upper arms.
- Inside was a thick stack of 8x10s. Lipton looked through the stack slowly, reading the notes he had written on the backs of each photo.
- Charlton and Pegg said they weren't taking any chances and moved to the back of the plane.
- The night was such a success that spectators paid to stand at the back of the hall after all the seats were filled.
- There could even be room for a modest theme park at the back of the site, so family fun would be assured.
- Name and age should be written on the back, with a contact address and home telephone number.
- Sulkily, the publicist moves to the back of the bar but Sinclair is still scowling.
- When police examined his car, left on the motorway, they found a note written on the back of a bus timetable.
- When this failed they moved around to the back and tried to unsuccessfully open the kitchen window.
2.3back to front
- your sweater is on back to front — te has puesto el suéter al revés
- no, you've got it back to front: she asked him out — no, es al revés, fue ella quien lo invitó a él
3(rear part, of car)the back of the hall — el fondo de la sala
- the back of the car — la parte trasera / de atrás del coche
- the back of the house — la parte de atrás de la casa
- a truck ran into the back of me — un camión me chocó por detrás
- at the back of the drawer — en el fondo del cajón
- we sat at the back — nos sentamos al fondo
- (of car) I'll sit in the back — yo me siento detrás / (en el asiento de) atrás
- there's a yard at the back — hay un patio atrás
- we stood at the back of the line — nos pusimos al final de la cola
- (in) back of the sofa — detrás del sofá
- he's out back in the yard — está en el patio, al fondo
- in the back of beyond — quién sabe dónde, en el quinto pino
4Sportfeminine defensazaguero masculinezaguera feminine
1(at rear)(wheel/seat) trasero(wheel/seat) de atrás(yard/garden/door/room) de atrásthe back row — la última fila
- Vijay was an older gentleman, large for his size with broad shoulders and a strong back.
- Males grow humped backs and hooked jaws, and females keep their sleeker shape.
- Her long hair fell down her back and over her shoulders as she just stood almost as still as stone.
- Their backs are covered with spots larger and farther apart than those on the head.
- All healthy babies under 1 year old should sleep on their backs.
- Pangolins are conspicuous and remarkable because their backs are covered with large, overlapping scales made up of agglutinated hairs.
- High above, two sea eagles swoop and dive, the light flashing bronze tints off their backs.
- They get their name from the large numbers of thorns or spines evident on the back and tail.
- Melanomas can occur anywhere on the body but are most frequently found on the upper backs and legs.
- At times I was unable to walk and had severe pain in the lower back, neck and shoulders all the time.
- Not only was his back pain a physical problem, it had stopped him working and meant his finances were low.
- After multiple grand adventures, the two finally settled down to eat their lunch with their backs resting against a fallen tree.
- One way to do this is to place your baby in an upright position against your shoulder and pat his back gently.
- However the caps of Chestnut-backs are brown rather than black, and their backs, shoulders, and sides are a deep chestnut color.
- Fences were put up, but shelter and feed were lacking; during the harsh winters, snow would pile high on the animals' backs.
- They are similar to large mousetraps and are designed to break the back of an animal.
- Women wear long cotton or woolen scarves that cover their heads, ears, backs, and shoulders.
- As they worked, no one complained of the pain in their backs or hands, but no one talked either.
- Most of the local women harvest seaweed for which they bend at the waist for long hours with poor body posture, and the men also strain their backs working as fishermen or in construction.
- It contains venom in the spines on its back and so a person can be stung by inadvertently stepping on it.
- By analogy with modern amphipods it is thought that these animals may have swum on their backs and fed on suspended particles.
- He had huge shoulders and a broad back which tapered to an extraordinarily small waist.
- Of the thousands of yoga postures, I'd like to recommend three that are good for backs and spines.
- I wonder who can tell me what you would call that ugly animal with a great big hump on its back that is condemned to live in a desert.
- She did not think she had seen him touching or stroking the small of the back or shoulders.
- The design of each chair inside the library is perfect for the rest of the back and the spinal cord.
- Through this great teacher I have learned how to keep my back free from pain.
- Some protesters applied face and body paint while others attached angel wings to their backs.
- The beetles' backs are covered with bumps - under a microscope, they resemble a landscape of peaks and valleys.
- They were leaning on each other's shoulders, with their backs to the tombstone.
- I smiled, putting one hand on his shoulder and tapping the back of some tall guy in front of us.
- The bees have wonderful habits, including a trick to keep warm: they have hairs on their backs and gather together so that the hairs form a kind of duvet over them.
- If you get a bad back or do a shoulder in, they just want to give you the sack.
- He invited Lewis to join the team's defensive backs for happy hour every Friday at a local restaurant.
- He still can shadow the game's best receivers and is an excellent role model for the team's young defensive backs.
- Now it's paying off… The team's defensive backs struggled against Philadelphia.
- Too many times, the defensive backs simply hit players and seem to be hoping they will fail.
- Great ball handling skills from backs and forwards alike resulted in a full back scoring a try in the corner, a move which saw Town go the full length of the field in three tackles.
- But don't be surprised if the team passes on defensive backs in the first round and takes a wide receiver.
- In the first two games, the defensive backs seemed indecisive, perhaps the result of playing off receivers.
- He started well and looked on for an early score as both backs and forwards took the game to Tigers.
- For the past two games, the defensive backs have smothered opposing receivers, which in turn has helped the suddenly resurgent pass rush.
- There was some good inter-passing between backs and forwards.
- But he's also been one of the most inconsistent defensive backs in the league.
- His 17.9-yard average per catch gets the undivided attention of defensive backs around the league.
- He also included some first team backs who held the key to the result since the forwards were reasonably well matched.
- Now he's not even on the field when the team uses seven defensive backs.
- The Browns have played much more cover - 2 than in years past, and the team's defensive backs have responded very well.
- He can get behind defensive backs, but he is very good at catching a quick hitch, breaking tackles and making a big play.
- It they stay put, the Saints will eye a wide receiver or defensive end because the draft is thin for defensive backs, the team's primary need.
- The team's defensive backs no longer are being picked on.
- After the restart, gaps were beginning to open on both sides with only a wet ball and lack of game time preventing the backs from both teams putting on a show.
- Communication between corners and safeties needs to improve, and the team is using defensive backs that don't complement each other.
2(of an earlier date)back copy / number / issue — número atrasado masculine
1(indicating return, repetition)he invited me back for coffee — me invitó a volver a su casa a tomar un café
- we can get there and back in an hour — podemos ir y volver en una hora
- the journey back — el viaje de vuelta
- I'll be back by eight o'clock — estaré de vuelta para las ocho
- Edwin is back from Paris — Edwin ha vuelto de París
- it's back to work on Monday — el lunes hay que volver al trabajo
- John is back in Toronto — John ha vuelto a Toronto
- the Democrats are back in power — los demócratas han vuelto al poder
- long hair is back (in fashion) — vuelve (a estar de moda) el pelo largo
- meanwhile, back at the house … — mientras tanto, en la casa …
- to run/fly back — volver corriendo/en avión
- I'll drive you back — te llevo de vuelta en coche
- we arrived back in Cambridge tired but happy — regresamos a Cambridge cansados pero contentos
- she came back out — volvió a salir
- I'll mail it back — lo devolveré por correo
- he asked for the ring back — pidió que le devolviera el anillo
- he lapsed back into a coma — volvió a caer en coma
2(in reply, reprisal)hang up and I'll call you back — cuelga, que yo te llamo
- he slapped her and she slapped him back — él la abofeteó y ella le devolvió la bofetada
3(backward)we forced the enemy further back — obligamos al enemigo a retroceder
- take two steps back — da dos pasos atrás
- shoulders back, chest out — hombros hacia atrás, sacando pecho
- to travel back in time — viajar hacia atrás en el tiempo
4(toward the rear)atráswe can't hear you back here — aquí atrás no te oímos
- the British runner is back in sixth place — el corredor británico está en sexta posición
5(in, into the past)I bought it back in 1972 — lo compré (ya) en 1972
- it happened a few years back — pasó hace unos años
- we didn't have television back in those days — en aquellos tiempos no teníamos televisión
- I first mentioned it as far back as last June — lo mencioné por primera vez ya en junio
- further back than the 14th century — antes del siglo XIV
- that's the furthest back I can remember — no recuerdo nada anterior a eso
- back in the day — en el pasado
6back and forth
1(support)(claim/person/decision) respaldar(decision/claim/person) apoyar
3(bet money on)(winner/horse/loser) apostar por
4(reverse)he backed the car out of the garage — sacó el coche del garaje en reversa Mexico Colombia
6(lie behind)a beach backed by tall pine trees — una playa bordeada de altos pinos
- a house backed by open fields — una casa cuyo fondo da a campo abierto
1(move backward)(person) retrocederdar marcha atrásechar reversa Mexico Colombiameter reversa Mexico Colombiahe backed into a lamppost — se dio contra una farola al dar marcha atrás
2(wind) cambiar de dirección
en sentido contrario al de las agujas del reloj
English has borrowed many of the following foreign expressions of parting, so you’ve probably encountered some of these ways to say goodbye in other languages.
Many words formed by the addition of the suffix –ster are now obsolete - which ones are due a resurgence?
As their breed names often attest, dogs are a truly international bunch. Let’s take a look at 12 different dog breed names and their backstories.