In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
- The chartered companies originated in the feudal practice of sovereigns granting fiefs to vassals in exchange for acceptance of obligations to the suzerain.
- But in 1086 William forced all his vassals to swear service directly to him for their fiefs.
- I have never been to the northern fiefs, and those lands will be mine before Neleva.
- The fief was usually land necessary to maintain the vassal, but oftentimes the vassal would receive regular payments of money from a lord.
- Those who fought with him at Hastings did very well, receiving lands all over England as fiefs.
- Scots nobles lost their English fiefs; after 1380 the Scots pound floated free of the English pound.
- Henry renounced lay investiture, but prelates were to continue to do homage for their fiefs.
- In 1525 Albrecht of Hohenzollern, Grand Master of the Order, accepted Lutheranism, secularized the state, and created a duchy as a fief of Poland.
- Their heirs would become emperors; John's own heirs would be given various imperial fiefs.
- After complicated manoeuvring on both sides, in 1202 King Philip announced that John had forfeited the Plantagenet fiefs in France.
- He gave fiefs to Norman lords, trying to keep the Saxon barons from becoming too strong.
- In retaliation, Teresa tried to lay claim to the Barberini fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples, but she did not pursue this very far.
- John became Lord of Ireland in 1177, but he did not receive any actual fiefs, so he got nicknamed John Lackland.
- King John made up by surrendering his kingdom as a feudal fief to the pope.
- Throughout 1171, Strongbow sent emissaries to Henry, and eventually went to Henry in person, offering to surrender his lands in return for their fief as a vassal of the king.
- By 1086, 80% of the fiefs were in Norman hands (some held by Flemings and Bretons).
- Large incomes were required before titles were awarded, but fiefs and landgrants were carved out of conquered territories in order to endow the new titles.
- Some Crusaders stayed on, to be granted various fiefs.
- During the Eastern Zhou royal power declined and there was a concomitant growth in the feudal fiefs, some becoming quasi-independent kingdoms.
- Otherwise Leinster and Meath became fiefs, held of the English crown by precisely defined knight service by Strongbow and Hugh de Lacy respectively.
English has borrowed many of the following foreign expressions of parting, so you’ve probably encountered some of these ways to say goodbye in other languages.
Many words formed by the addition of the suffix –ster are now obsolete - which ones are due a resurgence?
As their breed names often attest, dogs are a truly international bunch. Let’s take a look at 12 different dog breed names and their backstories.