In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1.1(firm, solid)(object/surface) duroto set hard — endurecerse
- to freeze hard — helarse
- When Anna awoke, she found herself back in a side room of the main lab on a rather hard bed.
- The easiest way to crack it is to wrap it in a grocery bag and drop it on a hard floor.
- Breathing became difficult, her muscles shook, and she toppled to her knees on the hard floor.
- Home for them was a cold, damp shed, with a hard concrete floor with little or no bedding.
- She sat down to the hard floor of the tunnel and sat there, thinking about what to do.
- Don't worry about the pears being a bit hard - they'll ripen in seconds on the grill.
- After all, it takes a certain commitment to pay high prices for a hard seat in a draughty theatre.
- Wes awoke with a start when he felt something hard whack him in the stomach.
- Boots thudded on the hard floor as the man wearing them looked into each of the cells.
- At the time, I was on my feet all day at work on a very cold, hard concrete floor.
- The cold weather had made the ground solid and too hard for the dirt to trap footprints.
- He handed it to Vicky who found it unexpectedly light, it looked so ornate and delicate but felt solid and hard.
- The floor is hard, but cool and somehow the food tastes better and the conversation is lighter.
- The pathways break down when it loses the natural, hard compact soil which keeps the path together.
- He takes a step before his eyes suddenly roll back in his head and he collapses on the hard floor.
- This method can produce a wide range of products, from oily coatings to hard coatings and powders.
- My youngest daughter fell out of her high chair on to a hard floor.
- I lay on my back on the hard floor, moving my bag up underneath my head for a bit of comfort.
- The volunteers used to sleep a dozen to a room on thin pallets laid out on the hard floor of their offices.
- Outside the night was cool and fresh, but the ground was hard and still the rains had not come.
- Her body lay flat against the hard mattress she had been lying in for little over a week.
- Now he lay on the hard mattress of a cheap hotel, staring at the empty space next to him.
- Make sure there are no sharp corners or hard edges where she could hurt herself.
- I lay splayed out, face down on the hard floor for a minute or two, paralysed by embarrassment and surprise.
- Some skaters prefer this for the tiny increase in control you get with very hard carbon fibre skate boots.
- We finally dumped our bags on the floor and collapsed on the rock hard beds in silence.
- Having made his decision, Brett turned over on the uncomfortable, hard floor, satisfied.
- Some may insist you sleep on mats on hard floors to straighten out the spine, but they are in a minority.
- The attack involved several hard blows to the side of the head and being punched in the face, according to Mr Dixon.
- He reached for the knife from his father's wooden box and struck two hard blows into his stomach.
- The next hard blow to the head could be fatal, they said, and he must not fight again.
- Daryl immediately released her and stepped back like he had received a hard blow in the chest.
- If he does anything tricky just give him a good hard whack with these here gauntlets.
- He gave Tyler a rather hard slap on the back that made him nearly fall over the counter.
- Danny had forced a hard kiss onto her roughly and now, he was standing there shocked.
- It then made several very long hard runs forcing me to give line and then play it back.
- Buddy cuffed Roy on the head, slapped a small shovel in his hands, and gave him a hard shove.
- He said softly while he caressed the side of my face that was still hurting from his hard blow.
- Not once did the woman utter a sound, any cry of pain, she simply stood there, flinching when a hard blow came down on her.
- Josh ran over to Alex who had just given me a really hard blow to the cheek bone.
- As he was doing so he felt a hard blow to the side of his face and then another to the top of his head, he told the court.
- The police asked me if the child had fallen or received a hard blow to the injured area of her head.
- We chose to sit on a comfortable settee rather than on hard chairs or impractical looking stools.
- I had grown angry and pursued him in a fit of fury when he had rejoined his family and given him a hard blow to his head, that is for a two year old.
- He had reluctantly left, returned and then hit Mohammed Akbar a hard blow on the head with a baseball bat.
- Ichiru choked for a second, and Watz gave him a hard whack on his back before it would go down.
2.1(difficult)(subject/question) difícil(task) arduoour prices are hard to beat — nuestros precios son imbatibles
- such documents are hard to come by — esos documentos son difíciles de conseguir
- he's hard to please — es difícil de complacer
- you'll have a hard time / job explaining that to her — te costará explicárselo
- it's hard for them to adapt — les cuesta adaptarse
- I find that hard to believe — me cuesta creerlo
- to learn sth the hard way — aprender algo a fuerza de palos / golpes
- She also said the uncertainty of the past week had been very hard to deal with.
- However, all the hard work is still to come when we fully open to the public.
- Quite what effect his outbursts are having on his daughter is hard to imagine.
- People say that it takes ten years of hard study to prepare for a career and love.
- A team-builder, he has a huge appetite for hard work, but can always break off for a laugh or a joke
- She still found it hard to believe that he had survived the fire with just a small amount of injuries.
- In order to be successful with your career or your hobby, you have to put a lot of effort and hard work into it.
- It's a body of thinking and writing whose limits are exceedingly hard to define.
- It was hard to resist the temptation to eat the oranges as fast as we picked them.
- Searching for new wrecks requires patience and sometimes hard choices.
- Now that the damage is setting in, she tires easily and finds it hard to fight off common infections.
- I find this very hard to answer and the reason is that almost anything is possible now.
- To be a successful President is hard enough without having to spend the majority of the year playing catch up.
- Sorting out serious debt can be a long hard slog and their support is often invaluable.
- Looking at Julia as she cuddles her beautiful young daughter, it's hard to believe how different life used to be.
- So looking at the big picture, it is hard to see why prices should rise at all.
- It is not only hard physical work that makes people exhausted, stress has a similar effect.
- It takes determination, overtime and hard graft, but there is nothing like starting your own business.
- I think if someone has never experienced depression or that depth of emotional despair it can be hard to comprehend.
- The planting involved a great deal of hard work from our volunteers.
2.2(severe)(judge/master/climate/winter) duro(judge/master/climate/winter) severotimes are very hard for small businessmen — corren muy malos tiempos para los pequeños comerciantes
- he had a hard time in the army — lo pasó mal en el ejército
- to give sb a hard time — hacérselas pasar mal a algn
- to be hard on sb/sth
- don't be too hard on him — no seas demasiado duro con él
- it's hard on her to have to walk so far — tener que ir tan lejos a pie es duro para ella
- he's hard on his shoes — no le duran nada los zapatos
- If the concrete has not set and the rain is hard or the slope is steep, nobody will be happy.
- Gilbert is a hard taskmaster, but Murray certainly knew that before they got together.
- Taylor considers himself to be something of a hard taskmaster but he has been delighted with the response of his players.
- She snatched the boy by his collar on his tunic, and half-dragged him the rest of the way up the hill, her face hard.
- Those words may have to console the goalkeeper through a long, hard winter.
- They say the crows nested twice this year as there will be no food to feed the young next spring due to the hard weather.
- That's far too organised and impractical for us, though, as we have a long hard winter to get through.
- I could hear debris hitting the house and the rain was so hard I was sure we were in for a flood.
- This can mean the difference between life and death during a hard winter.
- But there are two things that should be pointed out to those who really know about hard winters.
- His voice was hard and harsh, strict and stern.
- Experts at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh had been fearing a hard winter.
- It could be a long, hard winter for people who rely on home heating oil to stay warm.
- If the rains are too hard, young plants and seedlings can be washed away.
- He is said by colleagues to be a hard taskmaster who does not tolerate failure.
- Not only is it a hard taskmaster, insatiable in the demands it makes on its followers, it often saves the best till last.
- He has been portrayed in some quarters as a hard taskmaster who doesn't suffer fools gladly.
- Certainly the winters can be hard - but by all accounts not as bad as in the old days!
- Two rhododendrons were about to bloom in the governor's garden, which looked as if it had survived a hard winter.
- A hard rain while the vines are flowering will knock the blooms off the plant and reduce the size of the crop.
- After a very hard winter with huge amounts of snow the season had been expected to get under way later than usual.
- Eiswein is made from grapes left on the vines until the first hard frost of winter.
- During the first hard winters, the more delicate settlers had a smaller chance of staying alive.
- It is a time characterised by a lack of vitamins in the human body after a hard winter.
- Many liken him to a stern Victorian mill owner but there is a soft centre lurking within the hard exterior.
- All the bees had died and I had to build it up from scratch from one queen that survived a hard winter.
- He seemed a hard taskmaster, but he did it all for what he saw to be the ultimate good.
- They grow big and can often be caught in all weathers, even in hard winter conditions.
- In times gone by, a big year for berries was regarded as an indicator of a hard winter ahead but this it is not always the case.
2.3(tough, cynical)(attitude/person) duro(person/attitude) insensible
- You want to know what his hard men who had done well out of Napoleon and the Bourbon Restoration might look like?
- His detractors lead one to imagine Mr Carey to be the archetypal cigar-chewing hard man in a sheepskin coat.
- He's obviously no pushover, but I think he probably needs someone to be the hard man at his side.
- I used to be removed from the house because I looked like a hard man whereas my wife was educated.
- Three nights in Florence and I'd become a softy and I was scared of these Southern hard men.
- He was a member of the Cadet Force and rose to the rank of sergeant with a reputation as being a hard man.
- We have hard men on our team who will always go for the ball.
- She is forced to be hard and stick to her decisions, but she is always fair.
- Vince is a hard player, a good talker, and unlike most good talkers, is a most positive doer.
- He also recently traded in his harmonica for a role as a hard man in a television drama.
- If he played on the right he came up against notorious hard man Tommy Banks.
- If you look at the nature of people involved in gangs in Scotland, a lot of them would be regarded as being very hard people.
- As I was serving the buffet the midfield hard man asked me to put Ceefax on the telly so he could see what the Scotland score was.
- They elected the hard man, the sheriff who would give them the best protection.
- Too many times midfielders, the ultimate hard men on the pitch, were knocked off the ball.
- Many a coach must have asked their resident hard man to successfully confront Johnson, but none have managed it.
- What a pity it would be if the Australian debacle was to bring the hard man back to centre stage again.
- This one-time military hard man has, he admits, grown attached to his home comforts.
- Just a sniff of weakness and these hard men will grab the opportunity with both hands.
- Aaron plays the lead role as a hard man who runs a garage with two friends.
- He's a hard man, unafraid of any opposition, and he gets other people working well and riled up.
3.1(concentrated, strenuous)we need to do some hard talking to sort this matter out — tenemos que hablar muy seriamente para resolver este asunto
- to take a long hard look at sth — analizar seriamente algo
- children are very hard work at that age — los niños dan mucho trabajo a esa edad
- it's hard work getting him to do anything — cuesta conseguir que haga algo
3.2(energetic)he's a hard worker/fighter — es muy trabajador/luchador
- a hard drinker — un gran tomador
4(definite)(evidence) concluyentehard news — noticias concretas feminine
- But there is no hard evidence that he ever met Richard, let alone searched for him across Europe.
- The kinds of stories that go on the front page of newspapers are hard news.
- I, for one, would need a lot more hard information before I could make my mind up about it.
- Of course, the papers were rife with opinion and speculation but cold hard facts were thin on the ground.
- We pointed out that this did not amount to hard evidence and that there could be other explanations for what we saw.
- Nevertheless, hard proof that he ordered the hijackings may never come to light.
- The officer added that it was difficult for the police to name suspects now due to lack of hard evidence.
- They both treated it in a clinical way, making sure to get the cold, hard facts reported.
- But you really need to have hard proof of some sort if you wanted those theories to stick.
- It is only a failure if we think that individuals should be detained on mere assertions and not on hard proof.
- There were constant rumours of further waves but there was no hard information as we had no radio or TV.
- He urged investors to make their decisions based on hard information and not rumors.
- But there appears to be little hard evidence of pupils failing to turn up for the second paper.
- I think the time has come to stop playing around and to seek out some hard information.
- They realised we had hard evidence on what was happening and they promised to cooperate.
- You couldn't actually put any real hard facts in this article could you?
- When and how will they begin to retract their unambiguous presentation of the story as hard news?
- Yet today those interest rate cuts were interpreted as hard proof that things must be bad.
- It takes a special kind of mindset to be this delusional in the face of cold, hard facts.
- There is also no hard evidence to suggest that the UK economy will suffer because of a future skills shortage.
5(sharp, harsh)(outline/angle) pronunciado(light/voice) fuerte(features/expression) duro
- We drive for a while and suddenly there is a loud, hard noise, and people run in all directions.
- The house is cold and the car is cold and everything is cold, bright, hard and vacant.
- The church basement is cold and hard morning light breaks through high windows.
- Then there you are in the broken temple on top, in the hard sunshine, looking down on the world.
- Looking out over this parched, shimmering landscape in the cold hard light of morning it's a miracle that anything survives here at all.
6.1(in strongest forms)a drop of the hard stuff — un traguito de algo fuerte
- hard porn — porno duro
- The dissolved salts in hard water have a similar effect, so soft water is advised.
- However, the water was so hard that it could be used only for washing and cleaning purposes.
- Hard water is not a health hazard, but dealing with hard water in the home can be a nuisance.
- Moving from house to house to house, from area to area, I noticed how hard water and soft water affect the skin on my face.
- I live in a hard water area and am concerned about the build-up of scale in the central heating system.
- Even their name has no hard consonant sounds.
- Have you ever noticed how all the truly bigoted expressions are blessed with hard consonants?
- Of course I knew the title of the anthem, but I have never been able to pronounce it: too many hard consonants in succession for my Latin vocal cords.
- The shorter word with a hard consonant at it's face seemed most fitting.
- Consonants are hard unless they are followed by a soft vowel.
6.4Physics(radiation/gamma ray) duro
- While travelling through a medium, hard radiation produces charged particles.
- There's no air, there's hard radiation, there's poison in the ground below you and of course, it's between 100 and 150 degrees below in centigrade.
- I would think you'd need hard radiation to initiate the cascade, but that the decay product would be softer.
7Politicsthe hard left/right — la izquierda/derecha dura
1(with force)(push/pull) con fuerzaI hit her hard — le pegué fuerte
- you have to slam the door hard — tienes que dar un portazo fuerte
- she kept her foot hard down on the accelerator — siguió pisando con fuerza el acelerador
- I threw the ball as hard as I could — tiré la pelota con todas mis fuerzas
2(strenuously)(work) mucho(work) duro(work) duramente(run) muchoI was hard at work — estaba concentrado en mi trabajo
- he works his students very hard — les exige mucho a sus alumnos
- we've been saving hard for the trip — hemos estado ahorrando mucho para el viaje
- no matter how hard I try — por más que me esfuerzo
- I think you're trying too hard — creo que te lo tienes que tomar con más calma
- if you wish for it hard enough, it will come true — si lo deseas con todas tus fuerzas, se hará realidad
- think hard before you decide — piénsalo muy bien antes de decidir
- I'd think very hard before committing myself — (me) lo pensaría dos veces antes de comprometerme
- to be hard put / pushed to + inf
- you'd be hard put (to it) to find a better doctor — sería difícil encontrar un médico mejor
- I'd be hard put to remember their names — me pondrías en un aprieto si me preguntaras cómo se llaman
3(intently)(listen) atentamente(listen) con atenciónwe'll have to look hard at their proposals — tendremos que estudiar seriamente sus propuestas
4(heavily)(snow/rain) fuerte(rain/snow) mucho(breathe/pant) pesadamenteshe's been hitting the bottle pretty hard — le ha estado dando duro al trago informal
5(severely)the southern states have been hardest hit — los estados del sur han sido los más afectados
- her death hit him very hard — su muerte lo afectó muchísimo / fue un duro golpe para él
- to take sth hard — tomarse algo muy mal
- to be/feel hard done by
- she thinks she has been / she feels hard done by — piensa que la han tratado injustamente
6(in directions)hard to port/starboard — completamente a babor/estribor
- to turn hard left — girar / doblar a la izquierda en un ángulo cerrado
7(close)hard by — muy cerca de aquí
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