In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1.1(firm, solid)(surface/object) duroto set hard — endurecerse
- to freeze hard — helarse
- Breathing became difficult, her muscles shook, and she toppled to her knees on the hard floor.
- He takes a step before his eyes suddenly roll back in his head and he collapses on the hard floor.
- Wes awoke with a start when he felt something hard whack him in the stomach.
- The cold weather had made the ground solid and too hard for the dirt to trap footprints.
- He handed it to Vicky who found it unexpectedly light, it looked so ornate and delicate but felt solid and hard.
- Make sure there are no sharp corners or hard edges where she could hurt herself.
- The volunteers used to sleep a dozen to a room on thin pallets laid out on the hard floor of their offices.
- This method can produce a wide range of products, from oily coatings to hard coatings and powders.
- Home for them was a cold, damp shed, with a hard concrete floor with little or no bedding.
- I lay splayed out, face down on the hard floor for a minute or two, paralysed by embarrassment and surprise.
- Her body lay flat against the hard mattress she had been lying in for little over a week.
- My youngest daughter fell out of her high chair on to a hard floor.
- After all, it takes a certain commitment to pay high prices for a hard seat in a draughty theatre.
- She sat down to the hard floor of the tunnel and sat there, thinking about what to do.
- Some skaters prefer this for the tiny increase in control you get with very hard carbon fibre skate boots.
- When Anna awoke, she found herself back in a side room of the main lab on a rather hard bed.
- Boots thudded on the hard floor as the man wearing them looked into each of the cells.
- Now he lay on the hard mattress of a cheap hotel, staring at the empty space next to him.
- The easiest way to crack it is to wrap it in a grocery bag and drop it on a hard floor.
- Having made his decision, Brett turned over on the uncomfortable, hard floor, satisfied.
- At the time, I was on my feet all day at work on a very cold, hard concrete floor.
- Outside the night was cool and fresh, but the ground was hard and still the rains had not come.
- I lay on my back on the hard floor, moving my bag up underneath my head for a bit of comfort.
- We finally dumped our bags on the floor and collapsed on the rock hard beds in silence.
- The floor is hard, but cool and somehow the food tastes better and the conversation is lighter.
- The pathways break down when it loses the natural, hard compact soil which keeps the path together.
- Some may insist you sleep on mats on hard floors to straighten out the spine, but they are in a minority.
- Don't worry about the pears being a bit hard - they'll ripen in seconds on the grill.
- If he does anything tricky just give him a good hard whack with these here gauntlets.
- It then made several very long hard runs forcing me to give line and then play it back.
- Buddy cuffed Roy on the head, slapped a small shovel in his hands, and gave him a hard shove.
- He gave Tyler a rather hard slap on the back that made him nearly fall over the counter.
- He had reluctantly left, returned and then hit Mohammed Akbar a hard blow on the head with a baseball bat.
- Danny had forced a hard kiss onto her roughly and now, he was standing there shocked.
- The next hard blow to the head could be fatal, they said, and he must not fight again.
- Not once did the woman utter a sound, any cry of pain, she simply stood there, flinching when a hard blow came down on her.
- Daryl immediately released her and stepped back like he had received a hard blow in the chest.
- He reached for the knife from his father's wooden box and struck two hard blows into his stomach.
- The police asked me if the child had fallen or received a hard blow to the injured area of her head.
- The attack involved several hard blows to the side of the head and being punched in the face, according to Mr Dixon.
- Ichiru choked for a second, and Watz gave him a hard whack on his back before it would go down.
- As he was doing so he felt a hard blow to the side of his face and then another to the top of his head, he told the court.
- We chose to sit on a comfortable settee rather than on hard chairs or impractical looking stools.
- Josh ran over to Alex who had just given me a really hard blow to the cheek bone.
- I had grown angry and pursued him in a fit of fury when he had rejoined his family and given him a hard blow to his head, that is for a two year old.
- He said softly while he caressed the side of my face that was still hurting from his hard blow.
2.1(difficult)(question/subject) difícil(task) arduoour prices are hard to beat — nuestros precios son imbatibles
- such documents are hard to come by — esos documentos son difíciles de conseguir
- he's hard to please — es difícil de complacer
- it's hard for them to adapt — les cuesta adaptarse
- I find that hard to believe — me cuesta creerlo
- However, all the hard work is still to come when we fully open to the public.
- To be a successful President is hard enough without having to spend the majority of the year playing catch up.
- Quite what effect his outbursts are having on his daughter is hard to imagine.
- It takes determination, overtime and hard graft, but there is nothing like starting your own business.
- It was hard to resist the temptation to eat the oranges as fast as we picked them.
- So looking at the big picture, it is hard to see why prices should rise at all.
- Now that the damage is setting in, she tires easily and finds it hard to fight off common infections.
- Searching for new wrecks requires patience and sometimes hard choices.
- A team-builder, he has a huge appetite for hard work, but can always break off for a laugh or a joke
- People say that it takes ten years of hard study to prepare for a career and love.
- It's a body of thinking and writing whose limits are exceedingly hard to define.
- Sorting out serious debt can be a long hard slog and their support is often invaluable.
- Looking at Julia as she cuddles her beautiful young daughter, it's hard to believe how different life used to be.
- The planting involved a great deal of hard work from our volunteers.
- I find this very hard to answer and the reason is that almost anything is possible now.
- She also said the uncertainty of the past week had been very hard to deal with.
- I think if someone has never experienced depression or that depth of emotional despair it can be hard to comprehend.
- She still found it hard to believe that he had survived the fire with just a small amount of injuries.
- It is not only hard physical work that makes people exhausted, stress has a similar effect.
- In order to be successful with your career or your hobby, you have to put a lot of effort and hard work into it.
2.2(severe)(climate/judge/winter/master) duro(winter/master/judge/climate) severotimes are very hard for small businessmen — corren muy malos tiempos para los pequeños comerciantes
- Those words may have to console the goalkeeper through a long, hard winter.
- Not only is it a hard taskmaster, insatiable in the demands it makes on its followers, it often saves the best till last.
- Taylor considers himself to be something of a hard taskmaster but he has been delighted with the response of his players.
- It could be a long, hard winter for people who rely on home heating oil to stay warm.
- If the rains are too hard, young plants and seedlings can be washed away.
- After a very hard winter with huge amounts of snow the season had been expected to get under way later than usual.
- If the concrete has not set and the rain is hard or the slope is steep, nobody will be happy.
- This can mean the difference between life and death during a hard winter.
- Gilbert is a hard taskmaster, but Murray certainly knew that before they got together.
- They grow big and can often be caught in all weathers, even in hard winter conditions.
- Many liken him to a stern Victorian mill owner but there is a soft centre lurking within the hard exterior.
- She snatched the boy by his collar on his tunic, and half-dragged him the rest of the way up the hill, her face hard.
- In times gone by, a big year for berries was regarded as an indicator of a hard winter ahead but this it is not always the case.
- A hard rain while the vines are flowering will knock the blooms off the plant and reduce the size of the crop.
- During the first hard winters, the more delicate settlers had a smaller chance of staying alive.
- Certainly the winters can be hard - but by all accounts not as bad as in the old days!
- I could hear debris hitting the house and the rain was so hard I was sure we were in for a flood.
- That's far too organised and impractical for us, though, as we have a long hard winter to get through.
- He has been portrayed in some quarters as a hard taskmaster who doesn't suffer fools gladly.
- But there are two things that should be pointed out to those who really know about hard winters.
- His voice was hard and harsh, strict and stern.
- All the bees had died and I had to build it up from scratch from one queen that survived a hard winter.
- He is said by colleagues to be a hard taskmaster who does not tolerate failure.
- It is a time characterised by a lack of vitamins in the human body after a hard winter.
- They say the crows nested twice this year as there will be no food to feed the young next spring due to the hard weather.
- Eiswein is made from grapes left on the vines until the first hard frost of winter.
- Two rhododendrons were about to bloom in the governor's garden, which looked as if it had survived a hard winter.
- He seemed a hard taskmaster, but he did it all for what he saw to be the ultimate good.
- Experts at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh had been fearing a hard winter.
2.3(tough, cynical)(attitude/person) duro(attitude/person) insensible
- I used to be removed from the house because I looked like a hard man whereas my wife was educated.
- Vince is a hard player, a good talker, and unlike most good talkers, is a most positive doer.
- Aaron plays the lead role as a hard man who runs a garage with two friends.
- He was a member of the Cadet Force and rose to the rank of sergeant with a reputation as being a hard man.
- She is forced to be hard and stick to her decisions, but she is always fair.
- His detractors lead one to imagine Mr Carey to be the archetypal cigar-chewing hard man in a sheepskin coat.
- Many a coach must have asked their resident hard man to successfully confront Johnson, but none have managed it.
- He's a hard man, unafraid of any opposition, and he gets other people working well and riled up.
- You want to know what his hard men who had done well out of Napoleon and the Bourbon Restoration might look like?
- Three nights in Florence and I'd become a softy and I was scared of these Southern hard men.
- Just a sniff of weakness and these hard men will grab the opportunity with both hands.
- He also recently traded in his harmonica for a role as a hard man in a television drama.
- Too many times midfielders, the ultimate hard men on the pitch, were knocked off the ball.
- As I was serving the buffet the midfield hard man asked me to put Ceefax on the telly so he could see what the Scotland score was.
- We have hard men on our team who will always go for the ball.
- If you look at the nature of people involved in gangs in Scotland, a lot of them would be regarded as being very hard people.
- They elected the hard man, the sheriff who would give them the best protection.
- What a pity it would be if the Australian debacle was to bring the hard man back to centre stage again.
- If he played on the right he came up against notorious hard man Tommy Banks.
- He's obviously no pushover, but I think he probably needs someone to be the hard man at his side.
- This one-time military hard man has, he admits, grown attached to his home comforts.
3.1(concentrated, strenuous)we need to do some hard talking to sort this matter out — tenemos que hablar muy seriamente para resolver este asunto
- children are very hard work at that age — los niños dan mucho trabajo a esa edad
- it's hard work getting him to do anything — cuesta conseguir que haga algo
3.2(energetic)he's a hard worker/fighter — es muy trabajador/luchador
- a hard drinker — un gran bebedor
4(definite)(evidence) concluyentehard news — noticias concretas feminine
- There were constant rumours of further waves but there was no hard information as we had no radio or TV.
- We pointed out that this did not amount to hard evidence and that there could be other explanations for what we saw.
- He urged investors to make their decisions based on hard information and not rumors.
- There is also no hard evidence to suggest that the UK economy will suffer because of a future skills shortage.
- I, for one, would need a lot more hard information before I could make my mind up about it.
- They both treated it in a clinical way, making sure to get the cold, hard facts reported.
- They realised we had hard evidence on what was happening and they promised to cooperate.
- Of course, the papers were rife with opinion and speculation but cold hard facts were thin on the ground.
- But there is no hard evidence that he ever met Richard, let alone searched for him across Europe.
- Yet today those interest rate cuts were interpreted as hard proof that things must be bad.
- Nevertheless, hard proof that he ordered the hijackings may never come to light.
- It is only a failure if we think that individuals should be detained on mere assertions and not on hard proof.
- The officer added that it was difficult for the police to name suspects now due to lack of hard evidence.
- But you really need to have hard proof of some sort if you wanted those theories to stick.
- The kinds of stories that go on the front page of newspapers are hard news.
- I think the time has come to stop playing around and to seek out some hard information.
- It takes a special kind of mindset to be this delusional in the face of cold, hard facts.
- But there appears to be little hard evidence of pupils failing to turn up for the second paper.
- You couldn't actually put any real hard facts in this article could you?
- When and how will they begin to retract their unambiguous presentation of the story as hard news?
5(sharp, harsh)(outline/angle) pronunciado(light/voice) fuerte(expression/features) duro
- The house is cold and the car is cold and everything is cold, bright, hard and vacant.
- The church basement is cold and hard morning light breaks through high windows.
- Then there you are in the broken temple on top, in the hard sunshine, looking down on the world.
- We drive for a while and suddenly there is a loud, hard noise, and people run in all directions.
- Looking out over this parched, shimmering landscape in the cold hard light of morning it's a miracle that anything survives here at all.
6.1(in strongest forms)a drop of the hard stuff — un traguito de algo fuerte
- hard porn — porno duro
- The dissolved salts in hard water have a similar effect, so soft water is advised.
- I live in a hard water area and am concerned about the build-up of scale in the central heating system.
- Moving from house to house to house, from area to area, I noticed how hard water and soft water affect the skin on my face.
- However, the water was so hard that it could be used only for washing and cleaning purposes.
- Hard water is not a health hazard, but dealing with hard water in the home can be a nuisance.
- Of course I knew the title of the anthem, but I have never been able to pronounce it: too many hard consonants in succession for my Latin vocal cords.
- Consonants are hard unless they are followed by a soft vowel.
- Have you ever noticed how all the truly bigoted expressions are blessed with hard consonants?
- The shorter word with a hard consonant at it's face seemed most fitting.
- Even their name has no hard consonant sounds.
6.4Physics(radiation/gamma ray/x ray) duro
- There's no air, there's hard radiation, there's poison in the ground below you and of course, it's between 100 and 150 degrees below in centigrade.
- While travelling through a medium, hard radiation produces charged particles.
- I would think you'd need hard radiation to initiate the cascade, but that the decay product would be softer.
7Politicsthe hard left/right — la izquierda/derecha dura
1.1(with force)(push/pull) con fuerzaI hit her hard — le pegué fuerte
- you have to slam the door hard — tienes que dar un portazo fuerte
- she kept her foot hard down on the accelerator — siguió pisando con fuerza el acelerador
- I threw the ball as hard as I could — tiré la pelota con todas mis fuerzas
- Charlie tried to lift her head to look at the house but the wind was blowing too hard for her to do so.
- It had been a glorious day, with the sun beating down hard and only a light wind on the loch.
- The car hit the kerb so hard the wheels were ripped off and split in two.
- Instead Brian grabbed me by my shirt and shoved me hard against the wall.
- For the moment I had to content myself with hitting him quite hard with my tennis racquet.
- Once I did recover I pulled back and slapped him hard across the face.
- My dad got up from his chair and slapped me hard across the face.
- His intensity is really appreciable and he hits the ball extremely hard.
- The wind was blowing quite hard, but there wasn't any rain coming from the total cloud cover.
- Before he could react, she punched him hard in the stomach.
- The girl nodded at Simon and punched him so hard he was forced into one of the dirt walls.
- The guard was hit so hard that the blow left a dent on his safety helmet.
- It started blowing really hard, so we had to suspend operations for the day.
- Quickly I dropped to one knee and punched him hard in his chest before he could stand.
- He hit the ground incredibly hard and shattered both his legs but was otherwise unharmed aside from some bruising.
- I remember that, when the wind blew hard, it sounded almost as if somebody was crying.
- I throw my right hand out instinctively and whack it hard against the side of the door.
- When the wind and rain blew hard they were forced to use all their strength just to keep from going overboard.
- He hit Nicole so hard he fractured three ribs and ruptured her spleen.
- He quickly snatched the collar of Steven's shirt and shoved him hard against the wall.
1.2(strenuously)(work) mucho(work) duro(work) duramente(run) muchoI was hard at work — estaba concentrado en mi trabajo
- he works his students very hard — les exige mucho a sus alumnos
- we've been saving hard for the trip — hemos estado ahorrando mucho para el viaje
- no matter how hard I try — por más que me esfuerzo
- I think you're trying too hard — creo que te lo tienes que tomar con más calma
- if you wish for it hard enough, it will come true — si lo deseas con todas tus fuerzas, se hará realidad
- think hard before you decide — piénsalo muy bien antes de decidir
- I'd think very hard before committing myself — (me) lo pensaría dos veces antes de comprometerme
- Every activist should fight hard to build the biggest possible vote against the deal.
- I think that the committee worked very hard to put in a provision that was fair to everyone.
- My sister is studying very hard, but still has not passed her university entrance exams.
- They worked hard all week and it was a great all-round team effort to win it.
- The mayor also urged the children to study hard to prove that they deserved the scholarships.
- Though working hard for the police force, Allison also found the time to give back to the community in her spare moments.
- Half of the peasants were forced to work hard and were charged with a variety of obligations.
- Basically back then, all I really needed to do was study hard and ensure that I got good grades.
- Laura fought hard to breathe deeply and not panic.
- I've worked and studied hard for my success, and know what's it's like to live on meagre funds.
- The kids are putting in the effort, working hard, but are being short-changed.
- The teachers in this program are working hard to make sense of this mess, but the obstacles are great.
- It's an event I would dearly love to win again and I'll be trying hard this time round.
- The match was hard fought with chances being missed by both sides.
- He's been training so hard and we're all really proud of the effort he's making.
- But they are all working very hard in the gym.
- You might get an even lower price if you bargain hard or are staying for a while.
- He concentrated on his studies and worked hard because he wanted to get a good job.
- The city tries its best to be considerate to these students, who have studied hard for years.
- With the election set to take place on Thursday of this week, Labour and the Lib Dems have been campaigning hard.
1.3(intently)(listen) atentamente(listen) con atenciónwe'll have to look hard at their proposals — tendremos que estudiar seriamente sus propuestas
2(heavily)(snow/rain) fuerte(rain/snow) mucho(breathe/pant) pesadamenteshe's been hitting the bottle pretty hard — le ha estado dando duro al trago informal
3(severely)the southern states have been hardest hit — los estados del sur han sido los más afectados
- her death hit him very hard — su muerte lo afectó muchísimo / fue un duro golpe para él
4.1(in directions)hard to port/starboard — completamente a babor/estribor
- to turn hard left — girar / doblar a la izquierda en un ángulo cerrado
4.2(close)hard by — muy cerca de aquí
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