- More important was the wine boom in Spain and Italy in the 1880s which took advantage of the phylloxera epidemic in France.
- They had replanted their land with vines after the phylloxera disaster, until a glut of cheap wine flooded the market, and they could no longer sell their only product.
- Recession in the 1880s was compounded by phylloxera, which swept aside not only vines but many poorer farmers.
- While growing succeeded there for decades, a plague of the plant louse phylloxera, followed by Prohibition and then the Depression, set the region back for years.
- In addition, Chile is excitingly free from phylloxera, the bane of the wine universe, allowing it to produce versatile, forthright wines that are a pure and direct expression of single grape varieties.