Translation of refractory in Spanish:


obstinado y difícil, adj.

Pronunciation /rɪˈfrakt(ə)ri//rəˈfrækt(ə)ri/


  • 1formal

    (mood/person) obstinado y difícil
    • Threats of the same treatment prevented refractory congregations from using disused churches they had hired for private worship.
    • Kippenberger, even at his most refractory, is an artist of energy, sharp insight, great skill and considerable integrity.
    • Capulet's attitude to his refractory daughter is precisely that of my Muslim patients' fathers.
    • In his reply, Mr Goggins said: ‘Special accommodation may only be used for the temporary confinement of a violent or refractory prisoner, and not as punishment.’
  • 2

    to be refractory to sth no responder a algo
    • Because bioreductive drugs are activated to form highly effective cytotoxins under hypoxic conditions, they can be used to inactivate hypoxic tumor cells that are refractory to the direct cytotoxicity of hypericin-PDT.
    • Thus far, these patients have proved relatively refractory to potential therapies interfering with individual molecules.
    • The intravenous and oral formulations are used for the treatment of aspergillosis in patients who are intolerant of or who are refractory to amphotericin B therapy.
    • Within two minutes of cardiac arrest, approximately two thirds of patients develop ventricular fibrillation, but the rhythm becomes increasingly refractory to defibrillation over time.
    • Caspofungin is a Protocol Drug at UIHC and may only be used in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B or amphotericin B lipid complex, or by recommendation of Infectious Diseases Division consult.
  • 3

    (clay/metal) refractario
    • Such refractory materials as silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide are so severely attacked that their use is hazardous.
    • Mr Mills said KCM had for the past year been carrying out tests to determine the economic value of the dumped refractory ores in an effort to recover and process the hundreds of tonnes of copper.
    • The steel structure of the kiln is protected from the extreme process heat by a refractory lining.
    • Also under investigation as possible container materials are certain types of refractory ceramics.
    • Some compounds of hafnium are also used as refractory substances to line the inside of high-temperature ovens.