In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1.1(not smooth)(surface/texture/skin) áspero(skin/surface/texture) rugoso(cloth) basto(hands) áspero(hands) basto
- He ran a hand over the rough surface, walking around it.
- I reached around in the darkness, fingers flinching from the prickliness of fibreglass insulation and splinters in the attic's rough, wooden beams.
- Abbey gulped as she felt her wrists get tied together with rough rope.
- The wooden floors were rough (not having ever been sanded), often giving the boy splinters.
- The next day I placed the figure upright on a piece of 400 grit sandpaper and smoothed out the rough surface of the putty.
- To the boy it sounded like a bag of dirty clothes was being dragged across a rough area of cement.
- I could feel the movement, the change in the vibrations as iron-bound wheels went from a rough surface to a smoother one and then back to the former.
- The ornate rugs on the rough, wooden floor seemed to be nothing but pieces of carpet, dirt scuffing away the designs of its former glamour.
- I took his mantle and spread it on the rough wood surface, and with some difficulty he stretched out upon it, face down.
- Scientists at the European Space Agency think the lighter areas indicate a rough surface, and the dark areas are smooth.
- Mold spores adhere more tightly to the rough surfaces than to the smooth skin of undamaged kernels.
- The surface was rough behind my back, like sharp-edged pumice.
- The smooth slate floor of the bottom level reflects the rough basalt on the pathway through a preserved grove of evergreens.
- She felt her back hit the rough surface of a tree.
- Furniture replaced itself, but rough cloth became silk and plain wood shiny mahogany.
- Gold leaf is too delicate to be laid directly on the relatively rough surface of plaster and so the gold leaf is backed with thicker and more robust tin foil using an oil mordant as the adhesive.
- His forehead is pressed against the rough, gritty plaster of the wall, sharp against his nose.
- The rough concrete and uneven brick of the existing envelope contrast with smooth dividers displaying works of art.
- I reached over and touched the five o'clock shadow that was already forming on his face, and felt the rough surface against his chin.
- I leaned out as far as I could, looking down at the rough, sharp rocks on the beach below me.
1.2(uneven)(ground/road) desigual(road/ground) lleno de baches(terrain) agreste(terrain) escabroso
1.3(sea) agitado(sea) picado(sea) encrespado(weather) tempestuoso(weather) tormentosowe had a rough crossing — el barco se movió mucho durante la travesía
- How strong those gales turn out to be will determine whether the economy faces clear sailing or rough seas.
- What a fragile vessel to sail into the rough seas that lay ahead!
- It was drawing close to winter, so the ocean was rough.
- The pass is granted for next weekend, and Nurse Ratched takes out a newsclipping about how rough and dangerous the sea is this year.
- The beach was rough that day; the waves were great if you were a surfer.
- The amazons at the oars negotiated the rough sea with the utmost of care, proving their fine skill as seafarers.
- I was pushing him slowly over the edge that went off into a rough sea of destruction.
- The first was that, though the sea was indeed rough, there was little rain, and the air lacked the clammy humidity of a thunderstorm.
- We heard that the sea was rough over the Channel and did not expect you until the end of the week.
- There seemed to be waves buffeting me, one after another, like bathing in a rough sea.
- I finally spotted her alone, outside on the veranda, looking at the rough ocean.
- I chose to disregard it - I figured we had just hit rough seas.
- The sea was rough, but the setting sun had broken from the clouds and everything was vibrant in the sudden light.
- On this day there were tiny little rippling waves breaking on the sandy beach, but Rita told me that on occasion it could become very rough.
- Jeremiah stopped his wagon outside a hotel and stepped down, his legs wobbly and sore, as if he'd been in rough seas.
- He hugged her again, and she clung to him as if he was a raft in a rough sea.
- I do not think the man will come today; the seas are rough, and the horizon shows more storms to come.
- There were rough seas in the area at that time, the coast guard said, adding they dispatched patrol boats and planes Tuesday to search for the ship.
- ‘This does not bode well with me,’ James said as he held his rifle as though it were a life preserver in rough seas.
- The winds, storms, and currents combine to whip up huge seas, driving rough waves on top of massive swells.
1.4(voice/sound) áspero(sound/voice) ronco(wine) áspero
- Unable to even squint at the harsh light, her voice was rough and dry.
- Good weight of fruit and a vaguely rough tannins lead to an unsurprising warm alcoholic finish.
- Considering his height, then the steely look and his rough voice, both of which reminded me a lot of Carey, he was a rather intimidating person, even to me.
- ‘Majesty, we bring you a gift for the Prince,’ the man said in a rough voice.
- The ‘leader’ asked in a rough voice that seemed more like a growl.
- The voice was rough, but soothing, and she began to feel safer.
- His voice was unusually rough and that was all he said.
- His rough voice suddenly seemed more attractive than threatening.
- After a short pause, he heard the door open, followed by his uncle's rough voice before the latter finally appeared in his line of vision.
- It is a lusty, even rough blend of Grenache, Syrah and Carignan.
- Her voice was rough even though her words were velvet; it was as if her vocal cords had been run against stones over the years and no longer able to speak gently.
- Gavin's eyes had turned so dark a grey that they were nearly black, and his voice was rough with suppressed frustration and anger.
- ‘I suppose if we're to be living together I should know who you are,’ he said in his rough voice.
- Jeffrey's voice was rough and his words were harsh but Anthony remained calm and cool, save his eyes.
- She stayed up in the tree until a rough voice called out.
- Whispers followed that yell until a rough voice came out of nowhere.
- A rough voice snagged her attention as they stopped before the gate.
- The soldier's voice was rough as he spoke to the innkeeper.
- She suddenly heard a rough voice yell to her from the shadows.
- Devon's voice was rough from coughing, but he spoke up.
- After eight hours, we had gone solo and had splendid dog fights over the moors, huge fun, especially after two pints of rough cider!
- When he spoke, his voice was rough and husky, barely above a whisper.
- The rough red Italian vino was on the table for every meal and we drank it instead of water, not being too certain of the purity of the ship's drinking water.
- Her rough voice sounded almost hysterical as she dropped to her knees next to him, turning his lifeless body over and checking for a pulse.
- A fine wine match here is this rustic, slightly rough and spicy 100 per cent organic red, with enough heat and heft to manage the lamb.
2.1informal (unpleasant, hard)(life/existence) duroshe had a rough time of it when she was young — lo pasó muy mal cuando era joven
- to be rough on sb — ser duro con algn
- don't be too rough on the kid — no seas duro con el chico
- the critics have been rough on her recent work — la crítica ha sido dura con sus últimas obras
- it's a bit rough on her to be left with all the responsibility — es un poco injusto que le dejen toda la responsabilidad a ella
- Moreover, it was clear that a shy, sensitive boy like me was not fit to encounter the rough experience of a public school.
- Who knew that such a rough man could feel so right?
- They all had a nice chuckle when she informed them that she had a bit of experience playing football, but was kicked out of the league because she was too rough for most of the boys.
- Janet never abused Jamie, but she could be rough when she was drunk.
- He was rough, but not to the point where it actually hurt.
- Accompanying partners can have a rough time of it too.
- He was a rough man, but out of his venality and his bestial nature erupted this divine expression on the canvas.
- A group of rough looking men sat around a fire, drinking and laughing heartily.
- How many more people who he had never heard of before (and that happened to get off at rough starts) were they going to pick up?
- She was going to have a rough time with Wilson in the jungle for a year.
- He was harsh and demanding, rough and wild and erotic.
- Alex's first attempt to save his friend from the rough sex maniac went sour, but he's determined to try again regardless of the consequences.
- Admittedly they got off to a rough start, but she was a very casual person.
- I have to admit it excited me the way he was rough and aggressive.
- Unlike the kisses we shared in the past, this kiss was rough, hard, and I could smell and taste the alcohol on his breath.
- They're rough, dirty, and all about sweat and grime.
- He had a rough time of it, but it was he who informed me of your capture.
- The trouble is that they are not rough or ‘warehousey’ enough.
- Gideon and I had a rough start and it included many strange occurrences but we are happy and that is all that matters.
- If we rely on such counsel, if enhancing the national welfare depends on such, we are in for a rough time.
- Once they decided where to start, the going was rough.
- From the rough start at the beginning of the day, everything deteriorated.
- Such a sharp change in input markets is bound to lead to a rough transition as producers try to adapt technology to the new price environment.
- She looked like she'd had a rough time, and there was a three-foot-thick solid wall a mile high around her heart.
- From a rough start, he has proven adroit at managing these public moments.
- At our old house in Chicago I had hung out with a rough crowd.
- It was a busy day and the rough customers were more than a little rowdy that evening.
- As the Tavern continued to party, a table full of rough looking men stopped their discussion and looked up to where the fat cleric had his back to them.
- It's true, we may have given him a rough time last night, but I assure you, it's what any normal person would've done.
- Cost overruns from the 1995 expansion made for a rough start in 1996.
- Maybe we'd had a rough start, but it didn't turn out half bad.
- The hand that was so gentle with love before was now harsh and rough with lust.
- ‘Yes, he owns the saloon and has a rough crowd hanging around all the time,’ she explained.
- He had a rough time with the bills piling up, the electricity and water going off sometimes when he least expected it.
- If this was the explanation, then they could be in for a rough time.
- All right, I understand that you've had a rough time, but there is no way you're finding out my past on these conditions.
- Shannon's left eyebrow rose in speculation as Rogers fidgeted with the twin coffee mugs in his rough iron grip.
- She was having a rough time explaining to Scott that she was involved with someone, and that he needed to back off.
- Of course, she wasn't stupid - the rough engineer had worn protective gauntlets to shield her hands from the impact of the armor.
- Mr. Woodhouse will be happy to have the boys temporarily under his care, because he thinks their father and uncle are too rough with them.
2.2informal (ill)he feels a bit rough today — hoy no está muy bien
3(not gentle)(child/game) brusco(neighborhood) peligrosoyou'll break the doll if you're too rough with it — vas a romper la muñeca si no la tratas con más cuidado
- she got a rough handling from her interviewers — los entrevistadores le tiraron a matar
- we want a clean game, no rough stuff — queremos que jueguen limpio, nada de violencia
- Our house was situated in a rough section of town that was now undergoing the early stages of gentrification.
- It is a very rough place and rarely does anyone from this area go there.
- Although not a particularly rough town it had its unruly inhabitants, as did all dock towns.
- Living in a relatively rough part of town, I wasn't allowed out an awful lot.
- Kim thought for a moment and then remembered what Rosie had said about wanting her baby to grow up in a loving family and not on some rough London estate.
- Gonzalez, a Stanford University graduate, grew up in a rough part of the Bay Area.
- The area they moved to was rough, and Troy was soon caught up in a bad crowd.
- He spent many of his summer days in back-alley taverns that were too rough for the usual city folk to drink in.
4.1(crude, unpolished)(peasant) tosco(peasant) rudoa rough sketch — un esbozo
- a rough draft — un borrador
- all rough working must be shown — se debe entregar todos los borradores
- rough paper — papel de borrador
- rough book — cuaderno de borrador
- precious stones in their rough state — piedras preciosas en bruto
- it was rough justice — el castigo fue duro pero justo / merecido
- While no fully unified vision emerged, the basic parameters of a rough consensus were forged during these years.
- They spoke together in their own rough language for a while before Rastif brought Sanchen over to them.
- The book reads like a rough draft, not a polished book.
- We started writing together when I approached her with an idea and a rough draft of a vampire script.
- Whoever drew them must have seen the two before, for the pictures were quite detailed, even for a rough sketch.
- So, using the dividend yields seen during the 1998 crisis, rough target prices can be produced.
- I'm writing something real interesting, maybe I'll lend you the rough draft.
- Then, especially after I finally read the rough draft of the paper, I realized that was a pretty silly idea.
- Yet delicacy is not defeated, and this ambiguity in Jansons's paint handling - is it rough or is it refined?
- Some manuscripts include rough and final drafts, and galley and page proofs.
- As a working artist, when I look back on my early work I look at a rough draft of myself.
- Even though details are still rough, it's good to know that it placed so much thought into this masterpiece.
- He only did a rough draft, but he said he'd draw in all the fine details tomorrow.
- When I am drawing, I use pencils for rough drafts and pens for final copies since it makes my drawings look more professional.
- Firstly, the system is being developed online from 6 years of rough draft notes.
- Ultimately this scheme has to do with the architects' pleasure in materials and light, and in juxtaposition of the rough and refined.
- Conversely, the ‘performer’ will be able to generate a rough Labanotation score that can be refined by a notator.
- Each story comes off as a rough draft in need of polish.
- Now that I was getting somewhere, I took out another piece of paper to write my rough draft on.
- I performed a very rough draft to an invited Parliamentary audience.
- Woodward's book is just the first, very rough draft of that key time in America's history.
- This is a rough draft of a story and therefore the continuity is messed up.
- I wrote various rough drafts, too many of them sarcastic.
4.2(approximate)(calculation/estimate/translation) aproximadocan you give me a rough idea how much it'll cost? — ¿me puede dar más o menos una idea de lo que costará?
- it would take six months, at a rough guess — calculo que llevaría unos seis meses más o menos / aproximadamente
- When I had first started the story, I had a rough idea of where to go, but I guessed the story didn't turn out the way I had expected.
- A task, in common usability lingo, is a rough measure for a user activity.
- I have a rough idea who, but I want to keep it a secret until I'm positive of the facts and evidence.
- At a rough guess, that would give use room for around 800 songs, which is still plenty.
- I have a rough idea what kind of sight awaits beyond that door, but that still doesn't make me any keener to go out there.
- Having got a rough idea of how the coinage worked, we need to work out how much that was worth in modern terms.
- Using a set of digital scales, I made a very rough measure and found that it required about 6.5kg of force to compress the spring.
- Based on a rough approximation of the time, probably he'd be eating - bran cereal and fresh juice, the same every morning.
- I normally have a rough idea as to how much money I need to pay out each month.
- Here you get a very rough idea what the inside is going to look like.
- In a rough approximation, it works the same way as lint, and lint's users will need very little time to understand how to use it.
- Gerry threw the fifth empty can into the rough direction of the garbage can.
- This ratio is a rough measure of the operating leverage a company can achieve in the conduct of the operational part of its business.
- A rough measure of self-citation may be found in the links to other, affiliated sites.
- It is true that such rough measures of valuation are notoriously unreliable market timing tools, but they can be an indication of stock market risk.
- I'm not quite sure where I'm going with this story, but I have a rough idea.
- There is no exact figure of how many people actually lived on the Hundred of Farnham, but we can have a rough idea of how many died.
- And more than a third of people said they either had no idea or only a rough idea how much interest they were paying on their debt.
- We may perceive effects as real but they are in no way approaching even a rough approximation of reality and probably never will.
- The number of patents can thus only be used as a rough measure of the innovative capacity of a country.
1(violently)if he won't agree, they'll play it rough — si no acepta, se van a poner duros
1.1(in golf)the rough — el rough
1.2(draft)borrador masculinein the rough — en borrador
- Since most do not want to believe me, at a couple of random points during the semester, I will take one of the student's pinned-up roughs and wax poetic about various points and rationales.
- Behind the jar, a sketch pad is peopled with figurative roughs, historical drafts - the preliminaries of art and history, of cultural recognition.
- Some artists are willing and able to create roughs or prototypes to illustrate to a licensee just how well their work would suit products.
- I have roughs for about four or five more, including Oliver Twist and a couple of others I should be able to get to.
- Then I went into the mixing studio for six weeks and worked from 7.00 am to 8: 30 am doing the drawings and colour roughs.
- They want something new every time, and heaven forbid you actually made a ‘good design’ on the first set of roughs.
2British(hooligan)matón masculinematona femininegamberro masculine Spaingamberra feminine Spain
- Two teams of roughs, clothed in only their union-suits, attempt to wrest the boar-skin from each other's possession.
- Exhausted, the roughs finally shaken off, at 1 a.m. the sweat-soaked, frightened, and bedraggled dandy hammered at the door of his last-hope refuge.
1to rough it — pasar sin comodidades
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