- When digging out the bed, discard any heavy, tight subsoil and save the topsoil.
- Soil and subsoil will be stocked for subsequent respreading.
- Heavy clay subsoil or sandy soil with low fertility must be improved if roses are to be grown successfully in them.
- These soils are moderately deep to deep, well-drained loam or silt loam surface soils with loam or silty clay loam subsoils, formed primarily in sandstone residuum.
- Wetland creation attempts are often initiated by the removal of upland surface soil materials exposing mineral subsoil strata.