In English, many things are named after a particular country – but have you ever wondered what those things are called in those countries?
1.1(highest part)parte superior feminineparte de arriba feminine(of mountain) cima feminine(of mountain) cumbre feminine(of mountain) cúspide feminine(of tree) copa feminine(of page) parte superior feminine(of head) coronilla feminine(of wave) cresta femininehe was standing at the top of the ladder/stairs — estaba en lo alto de la escalera
- a room at the top of the house — una habitación en el último piso
- his name is at the top of the list — su nombre es el primero de la lista / encabeza la lista
- he jumped from the top of the building — se tiró desde el último piso (or la azotea etc.) del edificio
- He had been shot in the top of the right thigh and the bullet was still in his leg.
- I feel a few gentle taps on the top of my head, and look up to see a man looking down at me.
- He kissed the top of her head and put his other arm around her.
- Meanwhile, Sabrina was nearing the top of the stairs.
- Grill the bread on both sides and spread the top thickly with mustard.
- Leave the stock in a fridge or cool place, ideally overnight, so the stock turns to jelly and the fat sets hard on the top.
- He kissed the top of my head and ran his hand over my hair.
- Cut a cross in the top of each fig and press its shoulders with your fingers and thumbs so that it opens out like a flower.
- The two policemen positioned themselves at the top of an escalator, drew their batons and shouted at the fans to get back.
- She made it to the top of the stairs and turned into a corridor and tapped on his door.
- The redhead was more composed, sitting cross-legged in a way that only just allowed the kilt to cover the tops of her thighs, hands in her lap to prevent me getting a better view.
- Fill the moulds to just under the top, and bake for 7 to 8 minutes or until puffed up and springy to the touch.
- By the time I reached the top of the hill the object had disappeared.
- Although, it's getting noticeably warmer, the mountain tops are still covered in snow.
- One day he carried my little trike to the top of the stairs and told me it would be great fun if I rode it to the bottom.
- Only a few healthy leaves will remain at the top of the plant until it eventually dies.
- His eyes shot up to the tops of the trees and widened.
- It was Ellen, standing at the top of the stairs with her arms crossed in front of her.
- No one spoke for a while until they reached the top of a hill.
- He tugged his hat down, covering the tops of his ears and his eyebrows.
1.2British(of bed, table) cabecera feminine(of road) final masculine
- We walked up to the top of our road and eventually turned the corner onto the next street.
- I looked up towards the top of the road and saw a silver Mercedes haring down.
- Even worse, because it is a wide pavement they will use this and drive straight up to the top of the road irrespective of pedestrians.
- Apparently someone out there beyond the top of Morningside Road wants to demutualise the whole thing.
- He drove to the top of Savannah Road, where he came upon a van and jeep.
1.3(highest rank, position)he's/she's top of the class — es el primero/la primera de la clase
- she came top of the class in English — sacó la mejor nota de la clase en inglés
- our team reached the top of the league — nuestro equipo se colocó a la cabeza de la liga
- their record is (at the) top of the charts — su disco es el número uno de la lista de éxitos
- he worked his way to the top — se abrió camino hasta la cima de su profesión
- there are going to be changes at the top — va a haber cambios en los estratos más altos
2.1(upper part)the table has a marble top — el tablero de la mesa es de mármol
- the top of the milk — crema que se acumula en el cuello de la botella de leche
- I get 25% off the top — me llevo el 25% de los beneficios brutos
- to float/rise to the top — salir a la superficie
2.2(rim, edge)borde masculinefill the glass to the very top — llena el vaso hasta el borde
- she peered at me over the top of her glasses — me miró por encima de los anteojos
2.3a blue top to match the skirt — una blusa (or un suéter / un top etc.) que haga juego con la falda
- the bikini top — la parte de arriba del bikini
- the dress has a patterned top — el cuerpo del vestido es estampado
- Then there were normal T-shirts and miniskirts and shorts and jeans and tops and strapless things, and a lot of jewellery.
- Maggie had just finished tying her pink bikini top when the knocking began at her door.
- For dresses, blouses, tops, vests, jackets and coats choose the pattern size by the bust or upper-bust measurement.
- All three men were wearing white jogging trousers and hooded tops.
- The two teenagers are described as being slight, about 5ft 9ins and wearing light hooded tops with dark trousers and trainers.
- They taught us to match our eye shadow to our tops.
- There were a few sets of tiny shorts, but mostly the wardrobe consisted of short skirts, skimpy tops and a few dresses.
- Candy-coloured stripes will be appearing on tops, shirts, skirts and trousers in time for the warmer weather, offering a fun twist for casual wear this summer.
- She wears short skirts and tight tops, has a tattoo, likes to ride a motorbike and call herself by a Swedish name, Sara.
- It's a new line of dresses, skirts, and tops that can be worn in many different ways.
- What stood out here were the beautifully cut swimsuits and the form-fitting tops and skirts.
- Every body shape imaginable was squeezed into super short skirts and super tight tops with plunging necklines.
- They were all wearing hooded tracksuit tops and aged between seven and 13.
- I became the reluctant owner of another pair of trousers, a new top, and a couple of T-shirts.
- Wear insect repellent on your skin and clothes and cover your skin as much as possible by wearing trousers and tops with long sleeves.
- Police are keen to speak to, or receive information on, a man in a red-hooded top who was standing near to the incident.
- Jersey makes a big comeback this season in tops, skirts and trousers.
- For fall, there will be jeans, tops, sweaters and cords.
- Dark gray and black leather sneakers are ideal since they'll match most combinations of trousers and tops.
- I'd put on a pair of tracksuit trousers and a hooded top, but my hair was still bundled up in a towel.
- You can split up the suit and wear the jacket and skirt separately with other tops and bottoms to stretch your wardrobe.
- They were both wearing short skirts and halter tops.
2.4(of carrots etc) hojas feminine(of green beans etc) rabillo masculine
- It is made from the leaves and flowering tops of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, which contains psychoactive substances called cannabinoids.
- Roots are harvested in the fall when the tops have gone to seed and the plants have experienced a couple of hard frosts.
- Cut back perennials to within 8 to 10 inches of the ground after the tops die back or leave them uncut for protection against the cold.
- Be sure to pinch back the flowering tops of basil plants to keep them from going to seed too early in the season.
- When the tops of the carrots grow thicker, thin them to about two to three inches apart.
- The light should always be kept two to three inches from the tops of the seedlings and they should be exposed for approximately 15 or more hours a day.
- Clematis prefer a neutral to slightly alkaline soil, so add lime if your soil is on the acidic side. Keep the roots shaded and the tops in sun.
- To frill the ends, cut off the roots and all but about three inches of the green tops.
- All of the above aquatic plants grow with roots submerged and tops floating on the water, but some aquatics actually float, roots and all, like little boats.
- Marijuana or marihuana is a drug obtained from the flowering tops, stems, and leaves of the hemp plant (cannabis sativa).
- To prepare radishes for serving, wash them to remove any lingering dirt, and pinch or slice off the tops and any hairy roots.
- Harvest the bulbs when the tops fall over, and dry them off in the sun or a shed for at least a week before removing the tops.
- Add mulch to control soil temperatures and insulate roots in winter; the tops may freeze.
- The tops were planted where the sailors landed and by the late 1500s, pineapple was widespread in the tropics.
- Remove the tops of the beets and set aside to use in another dish.
3as adverb on top — arriba
- take the one on top — toma el/la de encima / arriba
- with a cherry on top — con una cereza encima / arriba
- there's VAT on top — además / encima hay que agregarle el IVA
- he can't stay on top for ever — no puede ser siempre el primero
4as preposition on top of — encima de
- on top of the piano — encima del piano
- the chalet is built on top of a hill — el chalet está en la cima / en lo alto de una colina
- the tent collapsed on top of us — la tienda se nos cayó encima
- you don't see it until it's right on top of you — uno no lo ve hasta que no lo tiene encima
- we'd be living right on top of each other — acabaríamos los unos encima de los otros
- on top of this you have to pay … — además / encima tienes que pagar …
- it's just been one thing on top of another — ha sido una cosa detrás de otra / una cosa tras otra
- he's always on top of his work — siempre tiene el trabajo al día
- I feel more on top of things now — ahora me siento más seguro
- they finally managed to get on top of the situation — al final consiguieron controlar la situación
- don't let things get on top of you — no dejes que las preocupaciones te abrumen
- and on top of it all / on top of all that, she lost her job — y encima / para colmo / como si esto fuera poco, se quedó sin trabajo
5over the top
5.1informal (exaggerated)the costumes were way over the top — los trajes eran una exageración
- I feel she went rather over the top in her recommendations — creo que se pasó un poco con sus consejos
- Cork Harlequins are rated tops in the country for they have a sweet balance of skill and power in their team.
- Results from Vodafone's mobile phone recycling scheme show that Sligo and Cork are tops when it comes to mobile phone recycling.
5.2over-the-top — desmesurado
6.1(cover, cap)(of jar, box) tapa feminine(of jar, box) tapón masculine Spain(of bottle) tapa feminine(of pen) capuchón masculine(of pen) capucha feminine
- He visited a number of sites in Kearsley, including the subway around Kearsley roundabout, and left small corks and bottle tops lying on the ground.
- Put the top back on and let the kids open it up to see what is inside.
- For his finale, Mark used lightning speed to remove the bottle tops.
- Beer bottle tops will do nicely, if you can't bring yourself to use your Royal College cuff links or the earrings you bought on your most recent trip to Monte Carlo.
- Please ensure that all tops and labels are removed and that containers are washed out.
- Stopper corks with plastic tops are used for some wines, particularly fortified wines and some sweet wines, a single bottle of which may be consumed over an extended period.
- This is the ‘fizz’ that you hear when you take the top off the bottle.
- He opened his own can with a hiss of escaping gas as Crystal removed the top of her water bottle.
- Put the top back on, and turn on the kettle.
6.2(car roof)capota feminine
7also top gear
Britishto go into/be in top (gear) — meter la/estar en directa
informalto be (the) tops — ser fantástico
1.1(uppermost)(layer) de arriba(layer) superior(blanket/card) de arriba(step) últimothe top shelf/drawer — el estante/cajón de arriba
- she lives on the top floor — vive en el último piso
- the top left-hand corner of the page — la esquina superior izquierda de la página
- I'll do the top coat tomorrow — mañana le doy la última mano
- she couldn't reach top C — no pudo dar el do de pecho
- An artist who received a first-class degree from a top London art school is showing her work in a joint exhibition in York.
- A senior official of a top company said IT firms were ready to face any situation.
- The size of a country does not matter, given that five of the top companies ranked were from Switzerland.
- By 1911, many of the top positions in the government were filled with his appointees and followers.
- The elevator came to a stop at the top floor and Anna turned to face the doors as they creaked open.
- Those in top positions tend to fear that statements made on television on the spur of the moment may land them in the dock.
- Moorby, understandably given his team's position, wanted the top team to win straight promotion.
- Early release is being re-examined by the Executive as a top priority.
- I wouldn't go as far as to say I was appalled but I was glad we had one of the world's top referees in charge.
- Liam Kenney has his sights set firmly on the top step of the podium this weekend.
- Those in top positions in the workplace in the survey were classified as senior managers and professionals.
- Overall, she was ranked in the top five in the country for goals and points per game.
- The county's ambulance service has been ranked among the top performers in the speed of its response to patients.
- The top floor, which formed part of the upper flat, has three bedrooms.
- It is the first in a string of references that he makes to male icons, from top athletes to racing drivers, suggesting his ego has a lot to live up to.
- Also the people in top jobs tended to be male, senior doctors, politicians etc.
- Why do my friends criticise me for doing up the top button of my shirt when I'm not wearing a tie?
- Independent Manchester Grammar School is used to ranking among the top schools in the country.
- They objected to the practice of government nominees obtaining top positions in industry and the professions.
- He had a toothy smile, missing a top front tooth and a bottom tooth two from center.
- She has come a long way since winning her first British title at the age of 11 and is now ranked among the top eight in the country.
1.2(maximum)(speed/temperature) máximo(speed/temperature) topetop gear — directa feminine
2.1(best)to be top quality — ser de primera calidad
- the service is top class — el servicio es de primera
- the top end of the market — los sectores de mayor poder adquisitivo
2.2(in ranked order)our top priority is … — nuestra prioridad absoluta es …
- the Top 40 — los 40 principales
2.3(leading)among the top scientists — entre los científicos más destacados
- the top jobs — los mejores puestos
- the top salaries — los sueldos más altos
2.4(senior)he's in top management — es un alto ejecutivo
- a top official — un alto funcionario
- she has a top post at the embassy — tiene un cargo importante en la embajada
- the top table — la mesa principal
transitive verbtopping, topped
1.1(exceed)superarrebasarsobrepasarunemployment topped the 3 million mark — el índice de desempleo superó / rebasó los 3 millones
- At some points, the pursuit reached speeds topping 90 miles an hour.
- The chancellor launched the 14-member commission last spring, after Germany's unemployment figure once again topped the four million mark.
- Western European production rose rapidly, and by 1950 it had topped the prewar level by 25 percent.
- SMS messaging is the fastest-growing means of communication globally - with monthly volumes topping a billion.
- This will be the third such tournament promoted by Dixon, who has quit the circuit to concentrate on promoting and the previous years have attracted crowds topping 2,000.
- With the way the economy is going now, we hope to top those numbers but that remains to be seen.
- The result topped Smith Barney Citigroup Research's forecast of US $240 million.
- Still, even if reforms grind to a halt, the likelihood of unemployment topping its record level of 5.5% is growing.
- On the New York Stock Exchange, advancers topped decliners as 573 million shares changed hands.
- In the third quarter, the number of unemployed topped the record level of 1991, when huge numbers of immigrants from the former Soviet Union came to Israel.
- According to market research the European smartcard market is forecast to top one billion by 2004.
- But that figure is expected to have been topped.
- That amount topped the total of all venture investments in Missouri for 1999, also a record year.
- And technology imports as a whole have inched up over the past three months, topping the year-ago level.
- Quarterly figures, published yesterday, show that for the first time, discrimination claims on race grounds topped the number of gender discrimination claims.
- Their findings, announced in several cities worldwide, highlight the planet's problems as the population tops six billion.
- Global sales have now topped the two million mark and annual sales exceed 250,000 units, of which 40,000 are in Europe.
1.2(surpass)(offer/achievement) superarthe Tigers topped the Mariners 6-2 — los Tigers se impusieron a los Mariners por 6 a 2
- The vegetables topped even that, bursting with flavour, having been chargrilled and marinated in olive oil.
- Dale Hodges topped his colleagues by squirrelling away $54,721 for a future campaign.
- That was the manner in which Emma Duggleby topped her own ladies' course record during Jean Mackenzie's lady captain's day at Malton and Norton.
- Jim of Automotive News narrowly topped Anthony Rowley of the Singapore Business Times in a close race.
- British officials are no doubt wondering how they can possibly top the spectacle of Beijing when London hosts the Summer Games in 2012.
- He is by far the most sublime player in the world today, despite his semi-final loss in the Australian Open, but topping Pete Sampras's silver collection is a long way off.
- Nothing will top the show I saw in Santiago!
- And in consumer goods, the Chinese have topped Americans in purchases of refrigerators, televisions and cell phones.
- There are some examples of child actors who manage to stay in movies as adults, sometimes even topping their early achievements.
- The question of how Rafa Benitez can ever top this achievement can be left for another day.
- And yet it's also just a part of a pleasurable little scene between two performers intent on topping one another with their jokes and gags.
- The landlord, Mick, is always coming up with wacky ideas so we thought we would top him for a change.
- In this case it's difficult to see how he can top today's performance.
- Lisa could only manage a total of 216 kilograms, a lift that topped her silver medal performance at Athens last year.
- I never wish to hear it sung again, as that performance can never be topped.
- And now, again in election mode, he has topped even this performance.
- There's no worse place on earth for quicksand and nobody can top my men for sand rescue.
2.1(head)(list/league) encabezarshe's topping the bill — encabeza el reparto
- Among those with more than 7000 test runs, he tops the averages along with Wally Hammond.
- It tops the list of the most beautiful and most dangerous places to live.
- The company topped the smoked cheese class at Nantwich, the largest cheese show in the UK, with extra mature cheese smoked by the Kirkwall firm of William Jolly.
- The Rock of Cashel tops the list of the most popular historical landmarks in the country with more than 100,000 visitors annually.
- Germany would still have won the championship trophy with 234 points and topped the medal count with a comfortable 22.
- As an independent candidate she topped the poll in the 1999 local elections.
- According to the newly formed coalition, topping the list of issues that we need to focus on is the protection of marriage.
- Quitting smoking tops the wish list for New Year resolutions and Swindon Primary Care Trust is working hard to help people turn their smoke-free dreams into a reality.
- He topped the list in a recent opinion poll in which respondents were asked who was the least trusted political figure in the country.
- The musician and businessman famed for his fundraising efforts topped a list of personalities in a poll commissioned to mark the coming Year of the Volunteer.
- At the last European elections, he topped the poll, getting more than 130,000 votes.
- Recent mainstream media polls show issues such as health and rural matters topping the list of public concerns about the performance of the government.
- Cliff Berry was the leading jockey with 80 wins and Donnie Von Hemel topped the trainers' leader board with 40 victories.
- As students heading off to university, education tops their list of concerns, but they agree many election issues don't appeal to people their age.
- He topped the recent list of Holyrood politicians for taxi bills, with a claim amounting to more than £11,000.
- Dogs that bark for lengthy periods topped the list, followed by people who play their music or television too loud, particularly at night.
- Mortgage repayments continue to top the list of financial worries for a third of the population.
- A new Daily Echo survey, which canvassed opinion across a wide cross-section of residents, reveals housing tops the list of local wishes by a mile.
- Company chief executives topped the table in both years, reflecting their undiminished earning power under New Labour.
- He was elected an alderman of Limerick City Council in the 1999 local elections when he topped the poll with over 900 votes in Ward 3.
- Seafood tops the list in the must-be-eaten category.
- The veteran spinner topped the bowling averages with 47 wickets.
- Right now, America's jobs crisis tops the list.
2.2(reach summit of)(mountain/hill) llegar a la cima de
- We topped the ridge at last and ambled down the slope to Timberline Lake.
- The big truck topped the final hill before the turn-off to Michael's place.
- Nicole's breath caught in her throat when she topped the last hill.
- He topped the grassy knoll and stared out at New York City's lights.
- We topped the last rise and started to coast down the gentle slope on the far side.
- When he topped the rise, he swerved to avoid the tree and collided with the stone wall behind.
- As he topped a small ridge, he saw a small village spread out before him.
- As we topped the rise we saw where the lightning had struck.
- He topped the new rise and raced down the rolling hillside in the heat of the late autumn's sun.
- I was still winning as we topped the hill and headed down.
- An hour later, topping another ridge, we came out into a vast, open stretch of ground.
- He topped a rise and looked back, shading his eyes.
- At about nine o'clock, the first vehicle topped a ridge, hit a patch of soft sand and stuck fast.
- She topped the hill and stopped a moment, looking around at the surrounding plain.
- When they topped a hill, she got her first look at the palace.
- When I've topped the rise I've been climbing, I have a long view to the south, a straight, long road ahead of me to the next ridge three miles distant.
- We topped a hill, and another, until we were on a steep north-facing slope that dropped off to the Yellowstone River.
- Then she remembered, just as the cop car topped the hill, she was in the wrong lane.
- I was in the highest gear, pedalling as fast as my legs could unwind, when I topped a small knoll.
- We were doing about 45 miles per hour when we topped that hill and saw a 2-ton truck 30 feet in front of us.
3(cover)(building/column) rematar(building/column) coronartopped with chocolate/cheese — con chocolate/queso por encima
- Compost mixes topped with a layer of mulch can help to retain moisture, as can water-retaining crystals laced through the mix.
- The custard is topped with a layer of sugar (usually brown), which is then caramelized under a grill.
- Here hills are topped with copses and rough-hewn fields roll towards the horizon.
- In the kitchen area, pale wood fittings are topped with unusual white tiled worktops.
- Use the remaining fruit to top salads and sorbets or to whip up blended ice drinks.
- The houses were large, and could just about be seen behind tall featureless walls topped by broken glass.
- On the side streets are two-story houses faced in white stone and topped by red tile roofs.
- These are topped with black polished granite worktops, with additional preparation and storage space provided by a central island unit.
- The kitchen is stylishly fitted with Shaker cherrywood units topped by a black granite worktop.
- Add the sprouts in a single layer and top with the rest of the sauce and grated cheese.
- Those hoping to visit it are stopped by a granite wall topped with barbed wire.
- Overshadowing the square was a tall hill topped by a crumbling castle.
- Some changes are small: in some schools, pizza is now topped with low-fat cheese and French fries are baked, not fried.
- Down the driveway, high electronic gates protect the building and the pale grey walls are topped with rolled razor wire.
- A church in Isleworth may soon be powered by the sun's rays with the opening of a new community hall topped by a space-age roof, it was revealed this week.
- An original Louis XVI commode is topped by the fine white Carrara marble which was so popular in this period.
- Add the berries, and some of their juices, and top with a final layer of bread, cutting to fit.
- I was surprised to find, in the northwest, a land of rolling green hills carpeted with flowers, olive groves and distant hills topped by a solitary farmhouse ringed with poplar trees.
- There will also be a new dry-stone parapet wall topped with a metal handrail in the form of a twisted rope, an echo of the days when barges were pulled along by ropes and horses.
- Each burger is topped with cheese before serving - just be sure to shred the cheese finely.
- The simplest way of growing plants under glass is to use a cold frame, a modest construction of low walls topped with a wooden frame and glazed with glass or polythene.
- Tomorrow, that brick wall might be topped with razor wire, and those privacy screens might all be made illegal in the name of National Security.
4(pineapple) cortarle la parte superior a(tree) mochar
- Wash and top the radishes.
- I had my first jobs when I was in kindergarten picking apples, topping onions and catching cabbage butterflies.
- Wash and top the strawberries, then blend until smooth.
reflexive verbtopping, topped
1US informal(surpass oneself)superarse
- ‘I don't know how to say this, other than I think she topped him,’ says a doctor.
- Al will play a detective who accidentally tops his partner during a murder investigation and is then blackmailed by the killer.
- A guy I know tried to top himself a while ago.
- The killer gets away and Dormer lets the assumption stand that the brutal murderer also topped his partner.
2British slang(commit suicide)matarsesuicidarse
1trompo masculinepeonza feminine→ sleep
- He had fallen in love, Mary's beauty and her assent to his affections spinning him like a top.
- We liked hurling tops and see them spin, jump and hiss.
- Bedi spun it like a top, the ball occasionally taking a divot out of the wet mud that passed for a wicket.
- There are carefree drawings from the early 1950s in which women spin like tops, or lounge like courtesans.
- Kids are bound to fall in love with the tiny magic tops, which turn around after starting to spin, spinning tops with strings and toothpicks with colourful, painted heads.
- But the tops are useless without a launcher, costing another £3.99, which spins the tops into each other at high speed.
- Their defensemen were getting spun like tops by the great one-on-one talent at the World Cup.
- Boys play marbles, spin tops, fly kites, and play such games as kabaddi (team wrestling).
- Instead he stuck to cars, drawing trees or spinning things, like tops.
- Then, after the war, increasing affluence brought more toys for children - tin soldiers, tops, and dolls made of an exciting new material called plastic.
- Another offering is from toy giant Hasbro with spinning tops made of five parts known as ‘Beyblades’.
- Then they flew down the circular steps so fast that their little bodies were still spinning like tops as they swirled out the front door and into the yard.
- Another guest describes a patient who thought he was a spinning top, or teetotum, and liked to spin around, at which the guest prepares to demonstrate before being interrupted by another table guest who whispers into his ear.
- Louise is also hoping to branch out and offer party bags, ice-cream tubs in the summer and traditional toys, such as yo-yos and spinning tops.
- They bounced off another outcrop and spun like tops down the scree below.
- Favourites from Victorian times, including building blocks, spinning tops and toy prams and dolls, are also on view.
- I was worried and wondered what he had experienced when the angels spun him like a top.
- Gabriel tugged and tugged at me until I was running alongside him; he was cackling like a drunken fool, and he grabbed both my hands and spun us around like tops.
- The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves.
- Atoms have spin; replace the tops with atoms and now you're imagining a basic quantum computer!
English has borrowed many of the following foreign expressions of parting, so you’ve probably encountered some of these ways to say goodbye in other languages.
Many words formed by the addition of the suffix –ster are now obsolete - which ones are due a resurgence?
As their breed names often attest, dogs are a truly international bunch. Let’s take a look at 12 different dog breed names and their backstories.