- Octavius, nephew of Julius Caesar, Antony, and Lepidus, united as triumvirs, oppose the forces raised by Brutus and Cassius.
- For a time, he simply continued by virtue of the powers he had won as a triumvir.
- After Julius Caesar's assassination, the triumvirs was formed, consisting of three determined men, Octavius Caesar, Mark Antony, and Lepidus, who shared the rule of the Roman Empire.
- Political anarchy reigned in Rome at the hands of the triumvirs.
- The system was revived later in the century by the triumvirs Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus and Octavian to eliminate those judged sympathetic to the assassination of Julius Caesar.